Tuesday, November 19Институт «Высшая школа журналистики и массовых коммуникаций» СПбГУ

2019 Volume 6, No. 2

2019 Volume 6, No. 2

2019
№ 2
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The article has an introductory character: it gives a generalized characteristic of linguistic expertise as a procedure of applied linguistics in Russian law enforcement, as a special kind in the class of forensic speech examinations. The specific object of the analysis was the applicability of linguistic expertise of election information support: voter information and election campaigning. The steel material of the electoral disputes in the campaign for the election of the President of the Russian Federation in 2018, the Specificity of linguistic expertise is seen in its hermeneutic character. Describes the range of theoretical bases — from such Russian scientific disciplines, as linguistic criminalistics, legal linguistics to forensic speech studies and linguistic expertology. Briefly analyzed the conditions of the examination and its procedural and at the same time genre varieties in forensic investigations and information disputes, including electoral. The boundaries of expert competence are indicated. The function of expertise in the resolution of linguistic and legal conflicts and at the same time its conflictogenicity is noted, which is due not only to its “double” subordination: the creation of law enforcement structures at the request, but also to the norms of scientific ethos, but also to the incoming circumstances, including administrative pressure. Describes the history lingvoexpert study of the electoral process, starting in 2003, Specified varieties of speech torts, it is possible in the electoral communication: illegal campaigning, insults, extremist statements; the marked “grey zone” — the lack of distinction between public awareness and electorate campaigning, including presentations, events, streaming movies, etc. Identified the specific hermeneutic mechanism of discretion, which allows law enforcement authorities independently, without recourse to linguistic experts, to characterize a discursive phenomenon and to issue verdicts. The author came to a conclusion about the presence in the linguistic expertise of such type as the expertise of information support of elections, stated the low level of its development against the background of other types and expressed confidence that it will be in demand, and it will form its standard algorithms of analysis, its terminology and questionnaire. The article is a sketch of the contentious electoral communication as a segment of discourse, performed through the prism of linguoexpertology.

2019
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The article deals with features of argumentative speech in television political talk shows, which have become one of the most important means of forming public opinion, as well as in social media, the role of which in the system of mass communication continues to increase. We conducted a review of studies on reasoning, one of the main functional and semantic types of speech. According to the broad interpretation, the reasoning is an argumentative speech that is designed to convince the addressee of something. This implies that the analysis of speech structures considers not only logical and grammatical aspects but also functional and communicative aspects. After reviewing the main issues on the verbal interaction study particularly in linguostylistics and neo-rhetoric (theory of argumentation), we highlighted the fundamental nature of the stylistic-speech system. The latter is defined as interconnections of different language units which perform a common communicative task. This system allows describing the variability of speech depending on the changing communicative purposes and other parameters of the communicative situation. Each issue of the television political talk show is considered as a supertext that is specific reasoning. A moderator formulates its main idea (thesis) in a brief introductory speech and repeats it as a result of the discussion (conclusion) in the final part of the broadcast, while the speeches of the guests — journalists and political scientists — represent a bilateral argument (for and against). We studied speech units that are regularly encountered in these television programs, such as forms of dialogicity, methods of statement substantiation, as well as actual language means used by the speaker in the analysis of the political situation. We also described a complex of verbal and non-verbal means of accentuation of meaningful text components. While the participants of television political programs necessarily reason their point of view, Internet users often demonstrate their attitude to the events under discussion via emotional statements. In our opinion, the reduction of argumentative practices in network communication is due to the fact that, unlike political talk shows, which form the main trends in public opinion, social media express mainly situational group mood based on the emotional attitude to events.

2019
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The article formulates and substantiates the problem of the paradox of modern media text. The emphasis is placed on the fact that traditional research methods are no longer able to interpret many processes taking place either inside the mass-media reality, discourse and media text as their representative, or in the relationship between the media text and social, reality, everyday life. One of the ways out of this situation is an appeal to the methodology of semiotics. Three aspects of the information-aesthetic paradox of media text are analyzed. These aspects are actualized by the culture of visuality (visual turn), which determines new ways of interrelation and existence of visual forms, words and society. Socially relevant, objective, documentary information is no longer the only, defining property of media text, which distinguishes it from other types and types of textual practices. The informative of the media text is complicated by a number of phenomena whose properties are not inherent in the nature of the media text. These include the aesthetic, artistic, theatrical beginnings, which are increasingly realized in the media text. Media linguistics cannot ignore this growing trend. In the context of semiotic approaches, it is considered, as in the media text, the fact that a person turns into his signs, reality — into a message about reality, and speech — depicts speech. In this connection, the ideas formulated by J. Derrida in connection with the role and status of writing in the new European culture and Y. Lotman in relation to, first of all, photographs are relevant to the study of the media text; secondly, the theatrical performance. It is proved that media texts teach the audience to perceive (“consume”) information and text in a new way. He actively participates in the change of culture of the book by the culture of writing.

2019
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In the article, based on the analysis of theoretical materials and expert practice, the prerequisites and grounds for distinguishing a naming examination into a special kind of forensic linguistic examination are considered. The choice of the term Naming Expertise is also justified. This term allows to accurately identify the range of objects involved in forensic research (not only trademarks and other means of individualization, but personal names, geographic names, domain names, etc.) and justifies the role of such examination in preventing the emergence of conflicting names as a result of naming errors. In accordance with the provisions of forensic expertology, three reasons for the formation of a new kind of linguistic examination were analyzed. First, the features of objects — names (verbal and combined designations used as means of individualization, as well as personal names, pseudonyms, domain names, urban names, etc.) are revealed at the level of semantics, word formation, morphology, phonetics and graphics, special attention is paid to multimodal names. Secondly, the nature of special knowledge is determined for the production of Naming Expertise: in addition to general linguistic knowledge, onomastics, creative language linguistics, and media linguistics, as well as forensic expertology are required. Third, the circle of tasks solved by the Naming Expertise is indicated, which are not limited to identifying linguistic signs of similarity of different types and discharges of names, but include identifying the degree of originality, uniqueness, identity of the controversial name, its derivational model, compliance with the norms of the modern Russian language, public interests, and principles of humanity and morality.

2019
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The article features the results of working out the subtheory of advertising’s forensic examination, problems of formation it as a new type of forensic examination under the peculiarities of its objects (advertising), the scope of work and the nature of special knowledge in use. Economic development predetermines the advertising market’s development. But quantity does not mean quality. There is a large amount of inappropriate advertising. As a consequence, there is a need to use special knowledge. The analysis of the range of contemporary studies on forensic linguistic expertise of the advertising text showed the erosion of the established termbase. Even the concept of “expert’s competence” has collapsed. It is obvious that the development of a unified scientific methodological base for the production of linguistic expertise of the advertising text can only help to increase their probative value. The process of formation and development of a new kind of forensic examination is very intensive. Based on the research findings the author determines common tasks of examination, indicates the current and future situation of the development of this new type of linguistic expertise and applying it to the forensic practice. The author tells in detail about the methodological approaches to the study of incorrect comparisons in the advertisement.

2019
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The article deals with the problem of linguistic examination of the media text in order to establish the circumstances and the fact of violation of the Russian legislation. It is emphasized that significant semantic changes occur with the complication of the textualization process, when using multimedia tools, especially in social networks. It is possible to identify the content of the text due to its adequate interpretation and finding the right grounds for its understanding, which actually involves the inclusion of a text fragment in the so-called linguistic hermeneutic circle. The expert linguistic conclusion cannot fail to take into account the possible multidimensionality of the presentation of content, it should represent the result of the study not only of the semantics of the verbal text but also of other semiotic complexes that may be extra-linguistic in nature. In the post-Soviet years began to appear scientific work, which is of great importance for the development of lingvo-expert studies. These are works devoted to the problems of hate speech, verbal extremism, language expression in the context of interethnic and interfaith conflicts and the provocative role of derogatory ethnonyms. At present, when multimedia systems are being actively introduced into media practice, the semantics of all textual materials placed in a single media space and forming an aggregate semantic and psycho-aesthetic complex should be taken into account. Combining even two materials that are different in their textual nature, for example, verbal and iconic, can enhance the meaning of one or another component, or it can completely change the semantics of a newly formed work. A particularly strong effect may be due to the integration of the audio component, in particular, the musical component, into the semiotic system.

2019
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The problem of qualifying features of the “social group” in the course of linguistic expertise is considered. This concept is the subject of scientific discussions in various fields of science and practice: in psychology, sociology and social philosophy, in the theory of law and judicial practice. This state of affairs makes it difficult to carry out a linguistic examination of texts when answering the question of the presence in the precedent text of certain speech actions committed “against persons allocated on the basis of belonging to a social group”. The difficulties faced by linguistic experts are fully understood by lawyers, both theorists and practitioners, as evidenced by the extensive research literature on the concept of “social group” in the context of article 282 of the criminal code. In expert linguistic practice, the problem of uncertainty discussed concepts could be partially solved by appeal to metalinguistically analysis. From the methodological principles of media linguistics as a scientific direction for this particular task of expert practice, the following are important: an activity approach to speech practice, mandatory consideration of the audience factor, recognition of the polycode of media text as its ontological feature. The article presents the fragments of two expert studies of the author of this article (case studies 1 and 2), which show that the formulated media-linguistic approach to the issue of the social group highlights the nature of the activity of precedent persons, which is perceived as a characteristic of a certain social group. Such activity can have a verbal representation in the media text, but more often it is given through heterogeneous components of the media text: shown (visualized) in images, implicitly indicated in the navigation tags.

2019
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The article investigates an urgent problem of interpretation of such object of forensic expertise as a creolized text, which combines verbal and non-verbal elements. In contemporary court practice, linguistic expertise of such test is quite common, however, there are contradictions in the use of methods for the analysis of provocative texts combining different elements. These unsolved problems are dealt with in this article; the author proposes a complex methodology for text decoding and interpretation that includes three important stages: description of a text; discovery of “the meaningful” elements; identification of the coding system. On the first stage it is important to establish the object of research, on the second stage we need to single out all the meaningful signs disregard of their functions, scope and place in the text, on the third stage we should work out a system that would explain the meanings of the signs and emphasize significant elements in their meanings. Each stage has its own tools: genre analysis, discursive analysis, semantic analysis, etc. The author suggests including the stage of verification of the results of creolized text analysis and describes the experience of the use of psycholinguistic experiment at this stage. The main principles that determine the efficiency of this methodology are integrity and discursivity: the use of separate elements of this interpretation model will not give reliable results, as well it is impossible to analyze separate elements of the text or the text itself disregard of discourse it belongs to. The article provides an example of creolized provocative text interpretation based on the graffiti by Umka (a member of a nationalistic community SAWB).

2019
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The article is dedicated to the Russian word “luchshee” (the best) as an object of linguistic forensic examinations. The formal interpretation of a number of specific provisions of the Federal Law “On advertising” determines the conflict potential of texts that implement the strategy of advantages of goods or trademarks or commercial offers over others. The Russian word “luchshee” (the best) in the advertising discourse is traditionally considered as a direct indication of the competitive advantages of the product or trademark. The article attempts to prove the thesis that the semantic content of the Russian word “luchshee” (the best) in advertising does not imply a strictly mandatory reference to the product characteristics and competitive advantages of the characterized object. As a material of the study, real expert cases are used, in which the linguist is tasked to give answers to questions about the semantic content of the text, including the Russian word “luchshee” (the best). Functional and semantic characteristics of the lexeme are different (comparative, superlative, substantive). Since the Russian word “luchshee” (the best) reflects the speaker’s subjective attitude, use of superlative does not imply a mandatory comparison of the object with other similar objects. The use of the evaluative word form of the substantive is explained by the tendency of speech expressivisation and hyperbolization, which are an important characteristic of a modern advertising text. It is necessary to take into account the factor of contextual conditionality of the meaning of the Russian word “luchshee” (the best), as well as its syntagmatic environment. The combination of the Russian word “luchshee” (the best) with the word in a figurative sense eliminates the speech strategy of the advantage of one object over the others.

2019
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The paper offers the author’s idea on social networks as a subject for research in the sphere of criticism of media speech, namely, from the point of view of compliance with the etiquette principles in the communication process. As a linguistic material, the social network for parents “country of moms” was chosen: it brings together women of reproductive age to discuss issues related to family and children. Discussion in social networks develops a dispute model, yet it has a spiral structure. This makes it particularly interesting to consider the second remarks of dialogues in terms of possibility or impossibility of turning them into remarks-incentives, which is largely due to their compliance or non-compliance with the norms of network etiquette. In the study, such models of the second remarks as a remark of response, a remark of argument, a question, a blocker question, a blocker remark were defined. It was found that an important manifestation of second remarks’ etiquette is the principle of using citation in them. When the user is focused on the constructive continuation of the dialogue (in remarks-reponses and remarks-arguments), the citation is carried out by means of lexical formulas that are semantic dominants of the discussion and that allow the interlocutors to establish (or confirm) the subject of the dispute, their assessment and behavioral attitudes (motivation). When provoking a refusal to communicate or continue the discussion in a destructive way, this principle of etiquette is not observed: the user either shifts the semantic accents towards semantically less significant, but more advantageous ones from the perspective of the opponent’s speech disorientation elements (this is typical for the blockers — questions), or develops his/her own formulas, engaged in self-citation at each turn of the discussion (in remarks-blockers).

2019
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The topic is dictated by the desire to make more accessible material on the history and lingo-specific Russian advertising. The texts of I. T. Kokorev may be useful to specialists exploring the history of Russian literature in the field of mass communication. Appeal to this material introduces the unique texts of the witness and shows the formation of speech features. Kokorev began by writing small notes in the Moskvityanin magazine (1841–1856), and then turned to everyday essays. The creativity of the writer and features of advertising texts are considered in the context of the official views of the magazine “Moskvityanin” (1841–1856). The magazine was the mouthpiece of the “official nationality” in the Russian cultural space. This had an impact on the literary style, manner of presentation and personal relation of I. T. Kokorev to his own texts and subjects. The material is considered in the historical and cultural context of the middle of the XIX century, based on the methods of philological hermeneutics, which studies the text-monument that is distant from us as a historical, cultural and linguistic phenomenon. Advertising texts are considered through the microcontext prism, which allows drawing attention to the structure of the essay, the author’s language, graphic presentation of verbal material, value judgments, the construction of advertising messages.