Monday, August 2Институт «Высшая школа журналистики и массовых коммуникаций» СПбГУ

2021. Volume 8, No. 2

2021
№ 2
(Vol. 8)

The article is devoted to the history of the formation of journalistic style. The text of the media in its existence is always associated with the coordinates of social space-time, which determine the time and place of its publication. Publicist texts currently operate in the communicative environment of the media and the Internet. It is customary to talk about the communicative environment of modern media. In addition to journalistic speech in the communicative environment, the media also functions with other types of utilitarian speech: advertising, public relations, and government relations. Journalistic style in its modern sense arises when journalism and utilitarianism are distinctly combined in one text. This claim requires confirmation on the basis of linguistic materials of Russian newspapers and journals of the eighteenth-twentieth centuries. The article analyzes the publications of Thaddeus Bulgarin’s newspaper “Northern Bee” — one of the most influential newspapers of the midnineteenth century. The newspaper did much to ensure that society in the twentieth century received influential printed media speech as one of the most significant achievements in the speech practice of society. Bulgarin anticipated the appearance of publications based on the speech concept of colloquialism. In the publications of “Northern Bee”, the beginning of the transition from syntagmatic prose to actualized, which only a few decades later began to appear in fiction, is well visible.

2021
№ 2
(Vol. 8)

The work is based on the presumption that the journalistic (publicistic or newly mass communication) style is an integral part of the communication universe of people in the 21st century, and its importance has increased in direct proportion with the rise of the influence of media. In the specific conditions of Slovakia, the evolution of journalism was closely related to the issue of language emancipation of the Slovaks and the strengthening of their national awareness. In later phases, it was considered partially a hybrid style of public communication that was created by a mixing of the official (also referred to as the administrative style and the negotiation style in the past) and the scientific style as well as the belles-lettres style with the aim to not only inform, but also educate, influence or persuade dispersive, heterogeneous addressees in regard to the most current events having a broader social meaning. In the current era that is influenced by the massive use of information and communications technologies, the stylistic characteristics of texts in media significantly changes prevalently towards colloquialisation which is closely related to the deprofessionalisation of the journalistic profession and the creation of citizen journalism.

2021
№ 2
(Vol. 8)

The article deals with the newspaper “Babochka” as an important source for philological research, which objectively reflects the linguistic processes of its time. Translated articles selected from leading periodicals in Europe and America, creatively revised by the authors, included the Russian reader in the world media space. A differential approach is used in the article that focuses primarily on the dynamic elements of the lexical and semantic system. The newspaper presents the innovations of the early 19th century, including borrowings, foreign language inclusions, complex adjectives formed in Russian, and dialect words. As a result of the analysis of the source, the emergence of new meanings for words already in use was noted, the dating of a number of new lexemes was clarified, and contexts for their semantization were identified. The work concludes that the rare words and rare word usage recorded in the texts of the newspaper “Babochka” can be considered as valuable materials for historical lexicology.

2021
№ 2
(Vol. 8)

The study of the history of Russian vocabulary during a particular period makes it possible to identify dynamically developing groups of vocabulary that are united according to some principle (lexical and semantic fields, word-formation nests and types). The differential principle of forming a word list for the “Dictionary of the Russian language of the XIX century” provides such an opportunity with regard to vocabulary and phraseology related to the thematic group “journalism”. The article analyzes lexical neologisms (zhurnalizm, zhurnal’nost’, gazetnost’) from the point of view of the verbalization of concepts related to the awareness of a new socio-philosophical reality in Russian social life in the 19th century. The semantic content of the word-terms is analyzed and chronological data regarding their appearance in the Russian language are corrected. The broad lexical compatibility is considered with regard to su ch lexemes as zhurnal’nyj (zhurnal’naja kritika; zhurnal’nyje stateyki, melochi; zhurnal’nyje vykhodki, shutki, pochesti, zakidat’ zhurnal’noj gryaz’ju; zhurnal’nyj Aristarkh, zhurnal’nyj pisaka; zhurnal’nyj syshchik, zhurnal’nyje psy, plutni; zhurnal’nyj frant, shut, etc.), gazetnyj (gazetnyj mir, mirok; gazetnoje obshchestvo; gazetnyj yazyk; gazetnyje borzopistsy, gazetnyj genij; gazetnyj vodovorot, gazetnyj tovar, etc.) in the texts of 19th century Russian authors; the emphasis is placed on the special role of adjectives as markers of elements of a new social mentality, conditioned by the formation of the “media space”. The article also analyzes the linguistic facts that indicate the formation of evaluative vocabulary in this group of words (zhurnal’chik, zhurnalishko, zhurnalets; gazetka, gazetishka, gazetenka, gazetchina), which serves as an indicator of the attitude of society, as well as its individual members represented by the authors of texts to the phenomenon of new literature. The results of the analysis carried out with respect to the linguistic material presented in the article made it possible to characterize the collected facts as objective evidence of the identification of the media space in the linguistic picture of the Russian person’s world; the projection of the facts obtained in the course of this study onto the previously studied linguistic material confirms the presence in this picture of a certain matrix that organizes our ideas about the structure of social relations. The results of the analysis, which showed the productivity of using historical-lexicological and lexicographic methods in the study of actual linguistic material, can be used by researchers in various fields of the humanities.

2021
№ 2
(Vol. 8)

The article discusses the linguistic features of folklore texts of dream-divination published by Mikhail Kharlamov in the popular journal Collection of materials for the description of the area and tribes of the Caucasus, published in Tiflis from 1881 to 1915. The regional and all-Russian features of the unique folklore collection, which also reflected the individual characteristics of the collecting style of Kharlamov himself who was one of the regular authors of this journal, are described. The ethnographic and local lore orientation of most of the publications and the patronage from the Caucasian educational district contributed to the fact that the journal was perceived as a serious educational publication, therefore the language of its main materials can be characterized as clear and simple, and the style as truly popular science in modern terminology. It should be noted that when documenting some folklore texts, there is a “forcible ennobling” of folk speech when, for example, in the recording of dream-divination for the collector or editor, there are clearly literary lexical inclusions, which creates the effect of a stylistic seam in the text of such a recording. Despite this, the constancy and stability of the basic symbolic conditioning between the sign of a dream and its prognosis is revealed, which, as a rule, have deep mythological foundations. The general Russian folklore unity of the materials included in this collection is also emphasized, which manifested itself in the organization of the dream-divination text, its lexical composition, and grammatical form.

2021
№ 2
(Vol. 8)

By the 1830s, the role of literature and journalism in shaping public opinion and promoting state ideology was growing in Russia. One of the first attempts of the government to take control of this process was the decision to publish The Journal of the Ministry of Education, with a mandatory review of domestic periodicals. The most important communicative purpose of the review of texts was to familiarize readers with the most important and well-meaning publications of Russian-language periodicals from the point of view of editorial reviewers. The inherent evaluative component of these texts is obvious, for the purpose of which all possible linguistic means allowed within the official publication were used, a significant role among which was assigned to evaluative adjectives and attributive collocations as the most capacious and concise characteristics of the described object. The objects of macro-evaluation through adjectives were peer-reviewed articles, their authors and periodicals on the whole; relevance, quality, educational value, accuracy and usefulness of the publications, their compliance with the official views, the author’s style, some individual facts of their content, etc. were subjectto adjectival micro-evaluation. In the journal’s reviews of Russian periodicals, there are approximately100 different-typed evaluative adjectives, including both adjectives of general evaluation (otlichnyi, otmennyi, prevoskhodnyi, khoroshii, etc.) and of a partial one. The mostcommonly used of all evaluative adjectives throughout the existence of reviews were the adjectives liubopytnyi ‘having cognitive value’ and zamechatel’nyi ‘worthy of attention’, which cover almost all sections in the reviews. By the 1860s, the style of writing media-reviews in the journal became well established. During this time, individual author’s words and attributive collocations almost go out of use and rows of homogeneous attributes become rare. Additionally, the range of evaluative adjectives involved is narrowed and impoverished, and they themselves get an exclusively neutral stylistic colour, which is specific to the official publication.

2021
№ 2
(Vol. 8)

The article deals with the informativeness of the media text in relation to the representation of language dynamic chronological processes. A “dictionary” approach is applied, which is based on the comparison of the language material of modern media with the representation of outdated and neological vocabulary and phraseology in modern Russian language dictionaries of different types. The article describes the functions of outdated vocabulary (traditionally distinguished historicisms and archaisms) and neologisms in the language of modern media, as well as the redistribution of vocabulary between active and passive language stock reflected in the media text. Promptly reacting to all extralinguistic changes, the media text is a source of neologisms in the language, a polygon for using the vocabulary of different epochs in actual meanings and with modern connotations, also it sensitively responds to the process of updating outdated vocabulary in the modern language and demonstrates the redistribution of words and expressions between active and passive language stock. As a result of the analysis of the vocabulary of different chronological layers in comparison of media language materials with lexicographic data, the conclusion is made that when reflecting dynamic chronological processes, the “media text dictionary” should be an interaction and be carried out in both directions. On the one hand, dictionaries of modern Russian draw information about the real functioning of the vocabulary of the passive reserve from the media texts. On the other hand, the use of dictionaries by journalists and knowledge of the conditions for using both outdated vocabulary and emerging neologisms is necessary to avoid speech errors and to achieve the goal of competently using this part of the passive stock of the Russian language.

2021
№ 2
(Vol. 8)

The aim of this article is the analysis of the results of previous Serbian research on the impact of globalization on the Serbian media language. One of the main negative aspects of globalization is the weakening of national identity in order to adapt to world trends. The negative effects of globalization processes include the decline in the print media circulation and the growing popularity of cheap entertainment content offered by television, the disappearance of analytical, quality press, as well as the adaptation of information to mass distribution. The Serbian media language reflects the general social trend of approaching European and world trends, which, in addition to numerous positive effects, carries with it the risk of neglecting the elements of national cultural heritage, including the use of the national alphabet. Globalization processes affect all levels of the language structure and as a result, they are also manifested in the Serbian media language at the phonological, morphological, syntactic and orthographic level. The Serbian media language is characterized by the unjustified use of internationalisms originating from the English language. Anglicisms are often inadequately adapted, and most often appear in entertainment news and texts about popular culture, which are addressed to younger readers, as well as in electronic editions of printed dailies, weeklies and magazines in Serbia. The effects of cultural globalization, which is perhaps most visible in the media sphere, can be mitigated if the elements of national cultural heritage are carefully preserved. The use of Cyrillic in the Serbian media, the use of anglicisms only when they are really necessary, and a critical attitude towards the adoption of foreign language patterns can reduce the negative consequences of McDonaldization in the media sphere.