Tuesday, April 23Институт «Высшая школа журналистики и массовых коммуникаций» СПбГУ
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2023. Volume 10, No. 2

2023
№ 2
(Vol. 10)

The article analyzes the texts covering the special military operation (SVO) of the Russian Federation on the territory of Ukraine in the modern media discourse. The question of language strategies and tactics used in media texts belonging to authors professing different ideological positions is considered. By means of linguistic-stylistic, functional-grammatical and comparative analyses, it is concluded that in the texts, on the one hand, pro-Russian-minded, and on the other — liberal-minded journalists and bloggers, different argumentation methods are chosen as language strategies. As a result of the study of texts devoted to the topic of SVO, the author of the article comes to the conclusion about the predominantly reasoned nature of the speech of pro-Russian authors and, conversely, about the predominantly evaluative and hypothetical, i. e., in general, the emotional type of speech in the texts of liberal-minded authors. It is argued that the main method of argumentation of “pro-Russian texts” is the factual method, whereas the main methods of argumentation in “liberal texts” are evaluative and hypothetical methods. Special attention is paid to the question of the place and role of argumentation in texts representing new knowledge. In this regard, the problem of logical and cognitive actions relevant to substantiating truth in scientific communication is considered. Based on a comparative analysis of the logic of argumentation in journalistic and scientific communication, a conclusion is made about the similarity of communicative and cognitive strategies of science and quality journalism. The description of argumentative actions representing the position of journalists and bloggers belonging to the liberal wing of the media sphere allows the author to speak about the low-quality nature of liberal journalism.

2023
№ 2
(Vol. 10)

The purpose of the article is to describe and classify the linguistic means expressing evaluative meaning in the environmental media discourse. The objectives of the study include the identification of different means expressing evaluation in media texts devoted to environmental issues, identifying lexical items and stylistic devices for the formation of an evaluation strategy in modern media texts devoted to environmental issues, creating a typology of evaluative linguistic means in media environmental discourse. The method of component analysis of the lexical meaning of a word was used in the work, it enabled full understanding and characterization of lexical units with an evaluative component in their semantics. The method of content analysis of media texts made it possible to identify the pragmatic potential of axiological vocabulary used in Russian media texts dealing with environmental issues. The article considers the category of evaluation, which is universal for media discourse, and proposes a classification of linguistic means of expressing evaluative meaning in environmental media discourse. It is supposed to divide all linguistic means of expression of evaluative meaning into two main groups according to their positive or negative meaning. The authors carried out a detailed part-of-speech analysis of the lexical items of both groups, proposed their classification and analysed stylistic devices as a way of expressing a positive or negative connotation. The analysis showed that the most frequent among all the lexical items under consideration are adjectives with different meanings, which are widely used as a means of influence in the environmental media discourse and are capable of expressing ethical, aesthetic and rationalistic (utilitarian) assessment.

2023
№ 2
(Vol. 10)

The article is devoted to the problem of using cultural artifacts — material or mental objects created by man, functioning in various areas of the cultural-semantic field- in the structure of a polycode advertising text. The research methodology is based on a structural-semiotic approach and functional analysis. The paper considers various approaches to the definition of the concept of artifact; the typology of cultural artifacts used in advertising is determined. Based on the dichotomy of artistic and non-artistic ways of human exploration of the world, the following types of artifacts are distinguished in the structure of creolized media and advertising discourse: artifacts of spatial art (fine arts, architecture, decorative and applied arts); artifacts of temporary art (literature, folklore and musical); artifacts of spatio-temporal syncretic art (theatrical, choreographic, cinematographic, comics, actually advertising, etc.); extra-artistic artifacts (artifacts of history, fashion, politics, mass media, visual and verbal memes, etc.). We can define the mechanism for including artifacts in the fabric of media and advertising text as quoting texts of a previous culture that can manifest themselves at various levels of depth of the semantic structure of advertising. In this sense, citation is understood as broadly as possible, as the actualization in the text structures of the content elements of past texts or formal ones. The types of artifactual citation are determined by us on the basis of the modality parameter: mono modal citation (citation in the advertising text of the text of the same medial rank); polymodal citation (citation in the text of an advertisement of a text of a different medial rank); auto-citation (quoting texts of previous advertisements in advertising); meta citation (citation in advertising of expressions containing a reflection on the advertisement itself).

2023
№ 2
(Vol. 10)

The Internet meme as a unit of information and semantic exchange, having a polycode structure and the status of a precedent text, has a high linguo-creative potential. The linguistic creativity of a meme is formed due to the mechanisms of indirectly derived nomination, which provides a multi-layered cognitive structure and is conditioned by the type and topic of discourse, which determines its wide demand and life cycle. The analysis of the array of Internet memes testifies to the stability of those units whose content plan is permanently relevant for users, corresponds to their cultural base. At the same time, according to the authors, it is the linguo-creative potential of the meme, the ability to change, that provides a long time cycle of its existence. In the article, based on representative material, possible directions of meme creative development are identified, including the expansion of the component composition of the original unit; replacement by another unit within the lexico-semantic group; actualization of evaluative or expressive components of its semantics. Memes with the dominance of the verbal part demonstrate great linguistic and creative potential, which leads to high variability in the selection of illustrations, the possibility of textual transformations. The text part in such memes freely participates in the contamination of memes, the creation of metamemes. Such memes can demonstrate great potential in generating new communicative units, going beyond meme accounts and Internet discourse. At the functional level, the linguo-creative potential is manifested in the use of memes in media headlines, in business account posts, in naming, advertising texts and TV products (including TV series). The authors come to the conclusion that anchoring in discourses of various types is also one of the key factors that allow a meme to remain in the information space for a long time.

2023
№ 2
(Vol. 10)

The study of modern toponymic discourse in the mass media is one of the most pressing problems, since the introduction of “new toponymy” into active speech usage, into the cultural context of each member of the mass audience occurs precisely through the mass communication media. At the same time, the generalization of new toponymic units, even at the level of sentences, has a strong and direct impact on the behavior of the audience, the change and formation of the value system through historical and socio-cultural argumentation. Thus, changes in modern toponymy become part of the current linguistic and cultural concept, a linguistic source of information about the social, political, spiritual culture of the mass audience. Moreover, many examples of modern toponymy directly relate to issues of linguistic security in various aspects of media perception, a kind of humanitarian weapon in the confrontation of ideologies of states. Actual changes in toponymy, dictated by socio-political and historical-social circumstances, participate in the formation of a linguistic and cultural concept, which is formed as a result of the reduction of a fragment of the cognizable world to the limits of human memory and is included in the context of culture in verbal units necessary to meet the communicative needs of members of society. We consider the renaming of historical place names as a format for creating new linguistic concepts, part of a destructive information flow that is deliberately formed in the mass media, in the information flow of new media (telegram channels, social networks), creating an up-to-date media discourse. To study onomastic realities, it is necessary to develop a methodology for extracting cultural and historical information from the onomasticon, as well as a methodology for interpreting this information. This work is aimed at analyzing the current toponymic situation in the context of Russian-Ukrainian relations since 2014 and can be regarded as a contribution to the body of research of the cultural and historical onomasticon.

2023
№ 2
(Vol. 10)

The article summarizes the experience of studying foreign borrowings from the Russian language in the Kazakh Internet discourse. The aim of the study is to describe the ways of adaptation of foreign borrowings in the speech practices of Kazakh-Russian bilinguals, Internet users, in the context of language and speech contacts of participants in modern Internet discourse. The object of the study is the types of foreign borrowings from the Russian language in the Kazakh Internet discourse; the subject of the study is the speech practices of Kazakh-Russian bilinguals, Internet users. The research design comprised of a complex analysis, including descriptive, contrastive, phonetic, lexicographic, lexico-semantic analyses, quantitative methods and translation of texts. The description of interlingual interaction was made on the basis of synchronic material — the statements of modern Internet users, extracted from the Kazakh content of the social network, various chats and websites (Baribar.kz, YouTube). The analyzed text material included 180 units. The results of the study showed a high degree of demand for these borrowings in the Kazakh Internet discourse, most of which are used in accordance with the fixed spelling and orthoepic norms of the Kazakh language, which indicates their adaptation by Kazakh-Russian bilinguals. In the Kazakh Internet discourse, typical, predictable ways of adapting borrowings by Kazakh-Russian bilinguals, Internet users, which are caused by system interference in the conditions of interaction of languages of different structures, are noted. At the same time, phenomena characteristic only of oral speech were found, for example, the specific use of Russian clichéd combinations. With caution, we can talk about the specific phenomena in the Russian language, which is widespread on the territory of Kazakhstan, such as grammatical assimilation and semi-calculus. These phenomena are typical only for oral discourse, but the Internet discourse provides an excellent opportunity for their study.

2023
№ 2
(Vol. 10)

With digital technologies penetrating all spheres of life, the problem of digital ethics has become one of the most perspective and widely researched tasks of modern science and linguistics in particular. Digitalization influences the processes of media communication, which requires development of certain ethical standards in virtual environment. The given study aims at analysing and comparing digital ethics in Russian and English media texts. Within the framework of this study, digital etiquette is seen as a continuation of speech etiquette aimed at neutralizing aggression towards vulnerable members of society in the online environment. Using a combination of methods, namely sentiment analysis and analysis of lexical associations, messages about migrants in social networks, forums, blogs, instant messengers and microblogs were analyzed. The sentiment orientation of the text was determined using an automatic text analysis program and subsequent linguistic expertise. For this study we collected social media data of 8,478,629 characters (VKontakte, Odnoklassniki, YouTube, etc.). For the analysis of English-language media texts, iWeb data on the input word migrant was collected. The total volume of the analyzed English-language Internet messages is 1,185,200 characters. Migrant discourse in Russian and English social media texts is polythematic. The results show that negative and neutral tone prevail in English media texts while in Russian there are neutral, positive and negative texts. In English media texts, there are messages expressing solidarity with migrants. At the same time, the problems of ethnic intolerance and religious stereotyping still require consideration and further development of regulatory tools.

2023
№ 2
(Vol. 10)

The powers of discourse in the modern media Internet space are presented and differentiated on the examples of social, political, religious types of discourse. The methods used are interpretation, inference and linguistic experiment. The purpose of the study is to analyze the media addressee’s understanding of the smart, soft and hard powers of discourse. An online questionnaire was presented and tested in the Google-form to identify the degree of understanding of the terms and their practical application by a diverse addressee. In the course of the research, the hypothesis of the ability of a non-highly specialized addressee to differentiate the influencing powers of discourse was confirmed. The differentiation of the discourse powers is confirmed by ⅔ of the respondents who correctly identified the powers given as written examples. The strength of each example is justified by the proposed parameters. The research justifies the need for the discourse powers separation in connection with the strengthening of the intellectual potential of the media discourse to influence “smartly” on the addressee by purposefully constructing the discourse according to the given parameters. Response discourse, feedback with a potential addressee allows us to clarify the set of parameters necessary for a more accurate and unambiguous differentiation of discourse powers that can exert an effect in modern media space. Scientific novelty consists in conducting a linguistic sociological experiment, which allows you to understand better the effect of the discourse powers and their interpretation by the addressee. For the first time, a differentiating characteristic of the powers of discourse for communication control is given. For the first time, examples of powers from the social, political, religious types of discourse are analyzed and compared. A promising area of research on the potential of media discourse is to attract different types of discourse on the material of different languages.