Tuesday, December 6Институт «Высшая школа журналистики и массовых коммуникаций» СПбГУ
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2022. Volume 9, No. 3

2022
№ 3
(Vol. 9)

This article presents the results of the study — discrediting cyberbullying in the polylogues of network communication. The purpose of the study is to describe the options for the formation of defamatory cyberbullying in network communication and to identify some of its typological features in comparison with conflicting texts of a defamatory orientation in the materials of traditional print media based on the material of controversial texts that became the object of litigation in 2019–2021. The study, conducted on the material of three types of aggressive verbal behavior of network communicators — SMS correspondence, chat in the WhatsApp messenger and personal correspondence in the same messenger, made it possible to clarify some typological features of cyberbullying varieties as a distinct social problem that requires discussion and search for solutions. A comparative analysis of public aggressive speech actions associated with an attempt to discredit an opponent in traditional media (media) and social messengers made it possible to identify their common and different features. The common features, united by the strategy and tactics of discrediting, include: purposeful and pre-planned choice of the victim, due to the situation of communication, goals, the implementation of which is pursued by discrediting or offensive actions; conventionally or legally fixed rules of speech behavior in public and private speech communication. The differences, in our opinion, are primarily due to the type of discourse (institutional, interpersonal or mixed), the form of language manifestation as a means of communication (written/printed, oral, electronic); addressee factor (the number of participants involved in a speech conflict or observing it); a set of linguistic and non-linguistic means selected for cyberbullying. We believe that modern mass media serve as a kind of standard for the selection of speech means of communication, not only in “real”, but also in modern virtual communication.

2022
№ 3
(Vol. 9)

The goal of this paper is to convey the meaning of the category of speech system for computer cognitive modeling. By implementing it, the authors prove the importance of supplementing relational-situational analysis, based linguistically on the concept of functional syntax, with the technology of creating templates which are the formalization of those sections of stylisticspeech system that mark the mental processes under study. A review of works on speech system since the 1920s is given. It is shown that in recent decades, when studying speech system, the primary interest of linguists lies in the processes of verbal communication and in its main unit — a text. It is noted that the quantitative aspects of the language functioning in various areas and communicative situations are being examined not only in quantitative linguistics but also in the works on artificial intelligence. We prove the hypothesis that the given approach to the automatic analysis of texts is realized in all cases of social communicative practice, when to express the certain affective states or cognitive actions, we can find relatively stable ways of choosing and using linguistic means. From psychological point of view, this is the area of compressed internal actions, which, if necessary, can be expanded and expressed in the form of a verbal reaction or a verbal report. It is a broad research field covering the typologies underlying the known psychological inventories or recorded in descriptions of human behavior in various spheres of activity. The paper demonstrates the resources to analyze stylistic-speech system for the automatic search of professional crisis signs in social networks. The extensive material presented by the fragments of 86 network discussions describes the patterns of choice and use of multi-level language units to express the typical emotional states of currently experienced professional crisis. The linguistic markers of the mentioned states are considered in detail.

2022
№ 3
(Vol. 9)

Neologisms-hybrids in the texts of modern media communication are analyzed. It is noted that polycode is a combination of verbal and nonverbal components in the text. The author refers to the descriptive-analytical method, structural-semantic method, word-formation analysis, quantitative analysis. In addition, when selecting the material, a continuous sampling technique is used. Special attention is paid to the identification of media innovations created with the help of graphics. Such types of graphification as monografication, polygrafication, codografication, typografication are analyzed. Monografication is implemented in the following techniques: capitalization, hyphenation, parenthesis, holophrasis. It is emphasized that such word-formation innovations reflect the creative abilities of journalists, attract the attention of readers. In addition, the author describes polygramming. It is quite often implemented in latinografication. The nominations created with the help of this type of pulsation focus the attention of the addressees and affect their consciousness. Such a kind of graphic game as codografication is demonstrated. It is confirmed that it is implemented in numerografication, pictografication and inetografication. It is noted that in media communication, journalists can use such signs from the financial and economic sphere as $ (dollar) and € (euro). However, neoplasms with these symbols are less represented in the media space than other types of graphization. It is proved that the considered word-formation innovations increase the expressiveness of the media text. Neoplasms created with the help of typography are studied in detail. It is implemented in color grading. Word-forming neologisms formed with the help of this technique are used by the addressee to provide visual impact on native speakers. The following main conclusions are made: neoplasms created by monografication prevail in the texts of media communication; nominations attract the attention of readers, reflect the creative abilities of journalists.

2022
№ 3
(Vol. 9)

The paper aims, within the cognitive-discursive paradigm, at analyzing framing of one of the major political events in 2020 — the election of the President in Belarus, covered in the discourse of a Telegram channel. The author focuses on identifying mechanisms of destructive influence exerted on mass subscribers of a cross-platform messenger during a pre-election period. The objective of the research is to systematize and analyze frames that generate meanings that should influence Belarusian voters. In theoretical terms, the study is based on the provisions crucial for Linguistics of information and psychological war and Framing theory. The material for the analysis presents a selection of 2173 messages, posted in an oppositional telegram channel within three months (from May 8 till August 8, 2020). The sociological understanding of frame structures is important for the research. Its methodological implications are discussed. The interpretation of strategic framing is developed to suit the aim of the research and establish its role in consolidating protest sentiments and obtaining a planned political response from the mass addressee. The key themes and issue-specific frames are reconstructed to reveal how interpretive schemas model the pre-election political world. The thematic field “the Belarussians” is characterized from the point of view of three functional varieties of frames — diagnostic, prognostic and motivational. It is argued that posts in the opposition discourse channel have a mobilization potential, directed at subscribers with the aim of discrediting the official government. The research contributes to the theory of the language of information war and ensures the interests of Russian state politics in the field of information security and prevention of any aggression.

2022
№ 3
(Vol. 9)

In the conditions of widespread informatization of the communicative space, a new paradigm of communication is gradually being formed. The paradigm can be defined as interactive. In the modern world, virtual communication in social networks has become an integral part of the functioning of society and individuals themselves. Often it is not one of the possible forms of communication, but absolutely the main one — both private and institutional. The fundamental principle of network culture is its installation on communication, interaction, dialogue. The virtual network largely repeats the practices of natural social life, but at the same time forms an alternative network society. A decentered, non-hierarchical and open networked society provides its own system of values, norms and rules of speech behavior, methods of communication, its own communication formats, principles of organization and functioning, in other words, its own culture of dialogue. The focus of this article is the discourse of everyday life in social networks, in which spontaneous second-type dialogue prevails. Such a dialogue is characterized by informality, linguistic improvisation, interdiscursivity, a combination of attributes of oral and written speech. On the basis of the analysis of the methods and speech features of the implementation of communication in the social networks, the general and private (due to the characteristics of the social network as a dialogue platform) features of the virtual dialogue through the prism of its participants (virtual “I”, identities) and the forms of their speech interaction (post and comment) are identified. The image of an authentic dialogue in a social network as a verbal-nonverbal behavior of its participants is formed by analyzing subjective speech acts in combination with their non-verbal discursive action. The article is based on the report that is going to be presented at the XVIII International Congress of Slavists in 2025.

2022
№ 3
(Vol. 9)

The paper is devoted to the possibilities of creating a comic effect based on linguocultural signs and concepts in forum comments to media texts. The problem of the comic is studied in the context of the study of value essences and national-cultural meanings, which form the basis of the worldview of the national-cultural community. The material of the study is forum comments on Bulgarian online media publications or reposts of media articles in social networks. Due to the fact that the specificity of modern online communication is the relativity of the disposition of the author-addressee, the addressee is involved in the discussion of the topic, since both media texts and comments on them are usually read. Forum comments as posts written by the addressee under media texts, create a kind of network communication that allows its participants to evaluate the news or express an opinion about the content of the media text and, in some cases, to simply argue with or without reason. The formation of a comic effect on the basis of linguistic and cultural phenomena in forum communication is an important linguo-mental characteristic of the perception of the world by a national-cultural community, as well as a tool for assessing the preservation of cultural tradition. The analysis of linguocultural material involved in creating a comic effect in comments to media texts demonstrates the presence of several types of precedent, the use of phraseological units (paremias, citations, aphorisms), metaphors and concepts. The “transposition” of linguistic and cultural phenomena is based on the discrepancy between the internal and external image, on the violation of the usual syntagmatic relations of linguistic units, the actualization and modification of frame-slot connections, and the ambivalence of semantic realization. The article is based on the report that is going to be presented at the XVIII International Congress of Slavists in 2025.

2022
№ 3
(Vol. 9)

The article deals with the issue of Slovak masspersonal communication. In order to describe its specificity, we research etiquette scenarios in online communication between the mayor of the Slovak capital and its inhabitants. We rely on the theory and methodology presented in the works of L. Duskaeva and D. Kępa-Figura, focusing on genre characteristics of initiating texts, specificity of phatic and informational genres implementation, as well as positioning of communication participants. The paper presents the most typical examples of the communication scenario slots between the mayor and the city residents and determines the genre implementation of each slot. We conclude that the statements of the political actor in the analysed polylogues are implemented primarily in the informational genres. Most often in the speech genre of reporting an event, notification, request, gratitude, appeal, warning, explanation, commitment. By initiating a conversation, but also by reacting to the remarks, the political actor seeks, first and foremost, to convey information. In the reactions to texts in the genres that improve or deteriorate interpersonal relations, the scenario of dialogue deployment, in which the political actor also participates, depends on its framing, and more precisely, whether he acts in the role of “mayor”, “architect”, or, for example, in the role of “resident of Bratislava”, “one of us”. The analysis carried out allows us to conclude that signs of person-centred communication can be observed above all in the dialogues of representatives of the general public, which, by initiating a conversation with such thematic dominants as topical issues of life in the capital, are enabled to form and unite as a cohesive community. In the aspect of the study of governmental media communication and the personalisation and positioning of a political actor, however, this study not only touches upon the field of media linguistics but also directly intersects with the field of political linguistics. The article is based on the report that is going to be presented at the XVIII International Congress of Slavists in 2025.