Tuesday, July 23Институт «Высшая школа журналистики и массовых коммуникаций» СПбГУ
Shadow

2023. Volume 10, No. 1

2023
№ 1
(Vol. 10)

The article explores the dictum and modus content of the virtual dialogue, formed by news published on the Internet and comments by the discussion participants. The problematics of the study is determined by the contradiction between the uniqueness of the content plane for the news publication as the embodiment of the author’s intention and the dictum-modus pluralism expressed in the comments of the participants in the Internet discussion. The study involves 155 comments of internet discussion to the news “What will the Russian soldiers die in Kazakhstan for?” posted on the maxpark portal. The Internet discussion of political news establishes the role of the categories of the expected and the conflict of interpretations that influence the dictum-modus content of the dialogue. While researching a virtual dialogue, we revealed two types of text space organization: syntagmatic and paradigmatic, which set up the undulating and radial principles of virtual dialogue development. The syntagmatic structure of the dialogue is manifested when the latter develops from a specific topic stated in the publication to related ones, then to global ones, which determines its multidimensional and polymodal development. The paradigmatic dynamics of the virtual dialogue is determined by the multi-vector nature of the topics discussed. The analysis of comments discovered two models of their interaction: linear-chain and parallel. The linear-chain model determines the development of a dialogue in accordance with centrifugal tendencies, expanding its dictummodus space. The parallel model ensures the development of a dialogue in accordance with centripetal tendencies; it is implemented according to the principle of a common structural model and the same mode, providing the stabilization and dictum-modus integrity of the virtual dialogue. The theory of Internet dialogue developed in the article, the explanatory potential of the categories of the expected and the conflict of interpretations can be used in the analysis and forecasts of the mental state of the society.

2023
№ 1
(Vol. 10)

The article discusses readers’ comments to online news articles in terms of their orientation and specifics. On the one hand, readers’ comments could be directed at the source article, its content or form, and the personality of the politicians mentioned in the text. Another vector of communication arises between readers who react to previous readers’ comments, which might lead to multi-vector dialogues and even conflicts between participants in online communication. In addition, a new communication channel is openned when the original text becomes a trigger for presenting commenter’s own positions which is not related to the main topic of the publication. Data excerpted from four popular Bulgarian online media were processed by means of content analysis. Seventeen different types of readers’ comments were identified and discussed in terms of their direction, frequency of occurrence and potential for provoking further comments and sustaining discussion among readers. Analysis showed that there is no single classification of readers’ reactions, and their direction depends on a number of factors, such as the topic of message, its relevance, commenter’s attitude to the topic, the number, quality and direction of previous comments, and thereader’s emotional involvement. Most numerous are comments on article topic, followed by reactions to previous readers’ opinions. Significantly fewer are negative reactions to people’s mentality and other commentators’ opinions, and to the article quality. Comments on images accompanying the text, on individual polititians, politics in general, journalists, moderators, and topics not directly related to the article, have smaller or zero generating potential.

2023
№ 1
(Vol. 10)

Dialogue as a research object is reflected in the works of not only Russian researchers, but also western researchers. Dialogue as a basic form is widely used in the media space, which determines the need for its study. The aim of our study is to identify the models of dynamics management in media dialogue as an individual manifestation of the moderator. The article comprehensively uses analysis and synthesis, communicative and functional analysis, comparative analysis, method of structuring and model analysis. The 560-minute 54 seconds episodes of the video blog “vDud’”* were used as empirical material. The media dialogue as a semi-institutional communication under the new communicative conditions acquires new features. Its structuring largely depends on the speech behavior of the moderator, who occupies the leading place in this type of communication. On the basis of the analysis of the empirical material three basic models of the moderator’s management of the themes are revealed: the model “from general to the parts” which is effective for the disclosure of event information, the model “preliminary preparation + main topic putting forward” shows the information about the guests’ world outlook, life philosophy and values, and the model “direct input” which has a great communicative potential. In addition, the identified models acquire individual features in the process of their application by the video-blogger Y. Dud’*. For the disclosure of event information, the first model of Y. Dud’* in a harmonious situation was used. To obtain true information about the worldview, life understanding and values of the invited guests the second model is constantly applied in a conflict communicative environment. The third model by the situation can be both cooperative-harmonious and non-cooperative-conflict nature.

2023
№ 1
(Vol. 10)

The article explores the relation between clickability, measured in click-through rate (CTR) with the system of meanings the headline comprises. The authors apply graphic-semantic approach when analyzing headlines with reference to their variable clickability. The article describes a case reconstructing the system of meanings, represented by the news headlines in Russian cyberspace, taking into consideration the CTR as a popularity factor among the readers. The material of the study is 4900 headlines of Russian news media for May 2019, provided by the news aggregator SMI2. The authors consider clickbait headline as a standalone text, communicating information, related to the material they headline only indirectly. Based on these basic constituent features of the clickbait titles the researches revealed frequency distribution of semantic fields, representing the most popular meanings, communicated in the headlines to the news content in Russian mass media. Besides, having analyzed CTR values growth/decrease, the authors defined the most and the least popular semantic fields, indicating the most promising vectors for further development of the media space. The system of meanings transmitting concepts formed by media agents (publishing houses, journalists) turned out to be highly clichéd and based on manipulative rhetorical devices (fields “Russia”, “Headlines promising to give the answer in the article below, Speech activity”, “New and unexpected”). Performers (actants) and actions here assume a secondary position. Actual interests of the audience — news content readers — focus on such concepts as character, event and chronotope (fields “Celebrities”, “Putin, Incidents”, “News”, “Death”, “Donbas”, “Kazakhstan”, “Crimea”, etc.). CTR analysis also demonstrates the growth of the users’ self-awareness as active participants of the media environment, due to their interest to journalism and PR, since they no longer passive receptors, but more often experts able to evaluate events and interpret facts.

2023
№ 1
(Vol. 10)

The issue of gender influencing the language has long been discussed in linguistics. But a great number of researches are focused on making a list of speech means, the use of which must reflect the specifics of female and male communicative types. From our viewpoint it is more fruitful to make a complex study of speech behavior in a single society united by some signs, outlining typical communicative scenarios. In this relation it is methodically correct to outline the etiquette line and to consider its peculiarities to determine the specifics of female speech behavior in the web. As an empiric material we used female weblogs as a unique deflection of the traditional genre of personal diary. The weblog is different from its offline version by the initial orientation on the wide (occasional, it is better to say) audience. Gradually the author forms a range of regular readers — subscribers who leave comments under each publication (or post) in the log. Inside each log along with typical for all female weblogs etiquette rules there exist own ones, due to the peculiarities of speech and non-speech self-presentation of the weblog author. As the study shows, it is typical for female speech behavior to strictly follow the selected rituals, to find violations of etiquette and to struggle with such violations, to long to psychological comfort as a main communicative value, to follow topical unity inside a single dialogue cycle, emotional dynamic which leads to the appearance of specific aggressive forms in speech — catfights, discussion of private life, entering the private sphere.

2023
№ 1
(Vol. 10)

Under the influence of globalization in media texts in Serbian language, as well as in all other Slavic languages, many new words, originating from the English language, have appeared. Those words, hybrids, began to fill the dictionaries of neologisms of all Slavic languages, including Serbian dictionaries. They represent a combination of an English stem and a Slavic affix, or vice versa. However, today the creativity goes even further, and more and more Serbian words that appear in media texts are combining affixes that they never had before. Thus, those words are given new grammatical and pragmatic functions. Many of these new words will never move from the sphere of occasionalisms to the sphere of neologisms, i. e. they will never be more widely used. On the one hand, the authors of media texts (first of all, columnists) nowadays take the liberty to cross the boundaries of the word formation and the use of lexemes, in the way that only writers, especially poets could do so far. This paper lists and describes word formation and grammatical innovations associated with the onomatopoeic adverbs, word formation and grammatical innovations with verbs, word formation and semantic innovations associated with diminutive forms, and noun innovations with a zero suffix. It is important to understand that these creative processes the journalist starts with Serbian language and ends with Serbian language, which contains in itself a hidden influence of (anglo-) globalization onto Serbian language. It may also represent a psycholinguistic impact of globalization on the linguistic behavior of Serbian speakers. The same process occurs in other Slavic languages, and the special attention should be given to that, since we are talking about language changes caused by a borrowed model of behavior and thinking.

2023
№ 1
(Vol. 10)

In modern Russian media, Russian participles and participial adjectives, nouns and pronouns, which are functional homonyms (similar-sounding etymologically related words), are widely used. In the present paper, based on 3,462 examples selected from the National Corpus of the Russian language, we analyze the prerequisites and the specifics of the transition of participles to other parts of speech, and show the differences between participles and their functional homonyms. The main prerequisite for adjectivation, substantiation and pronominalization of the participle is the attribute of the adjective contained in it, while the semantics of the participle, its position in the sentence and context play an important role. The transition of the participle to other parts of speech is of a gradual nature. Syncretic grammatical character, semantic compression and variability of syntactic functions make the participle one of the priority means of expressing such characteristic features of scientific texts as accuracy, consistency, conciseness and informativeness. In scientific texts, participles and their functional homonyms have different functions: substantive participles mainly perform a nominative function, adjectivated participles — a characterizing function, and pronominalized participles — deictic and other text-forming functions. Studying Russian participles is very difficult for Chinese students due to the fact that Chinese, unlike Russian, is the language of the analytical system, there is no form of participle in it. The division into parts of speech in Chinese is a special problem, since there are no specific morphological indicators in Chinese that characterize each part of speech. The results of the study can be useful when considering complex grammatical issues of the Russian language in the Chinese audience.

2023
№ 1
(Vol. 10)

The article is devoted to the identification and pragmastilistic characterization of the means of evaluating the interpretation of works of modern fiction by the authors of reviews and articles presented in the media content of the electronic literary magazine “Literratura” under the heading “Criticism” over the past three years. The purpose of the study is to analyze the evaluative judgments of critics based on a pragmaesthetic approach to discourse, i. e. taking into account the pragmatic attitude of the addressee of speech. Under the influence of the chosen role of the subject of critical discourse (“analyst” or “reader”), it can be dominated either by style standards objectified in line with the canonical genre of the review, or by subjective-evaluative ways of conceptualizing the reviewed work. It is established that modern professional media criticism is distinguished by intellectualized forms of evaluation, which manifest themselves in intertextuality, sensual metaphors and periphrases. In this case, the transfer of the critic’s attitude to the reviewed work is mainly implicit. The fact of the influence of “new Russian prose” on the style of the reviewer’s narration, which often imitates the author’s manner of creating a “second reality” and has pragmaesthetic effect, is revealed. The important feature of critical discourse, which brings it closer to blogistics in the case of choosing the position of the “reader”, is the transfer of the reader’s reflection of the subject of evaluation, acting in egocentric plane and not hiding subjectivism. At the level of verbal representation of the assessment, we can talk about the interaction of scientific, literary, artistic and colloquial discourses, about decrease in the stylistic register during irony, as well as due to professional jargonisms and colloquial forms that increase the degree of emotionality of critical media discourse.