Wednesday, February 1Институт «Высшая школа журналистики и массовых коммуникаций» СПбГУ
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2022. Volume 9, No. 4

2022
№ 4
(Vol. 9)

The article examines the languages of media representation of history, which are understood as approaches to the presentation of historical information found in the modern Russian periodical press. An original classification of such approaches is proposed, including scientific, quasi-scientific, extra-scientific, pseudoscientific languages of representation. Each of them, as a set of means of expressing thought and its design in the media text, is subjected to a comprehensive analysis using linguistic, typological, intentional, comparative, contextual components in order to assess the degree of their reliance on a scientific and historical basis. The need for such an analysis is caused by the fact that the media discourse of history is not limited to the popularization of scientific historical knowledge, but the criterion for the reliability of historical information transmitted through the media is its scientific validity, regardless of the external form of representation. The objectives of the study were not to clarify the ideological positions or historiographical versions presented in the analyzed texts. The work focuses on the media presentation of historical information, primarily on the author’s intentions, style of presentation and the nature of argumentation in the comprehension and explanation of data. The material for the study was selected publications on the topic of history from the current Russian periodical press (February — April 2022). The dependence of the characteristics of the language of representation on the type of publication, the professional status of the author of the publication, the motives of his appeal to history and a number of other factors is shown. It is concluded that in practice a single approach in its full-scale format is rarely used. As a rule, in the media text it is possible to identify elements of various languages of the representation of history in various combinations with the dominance of the general journalistic style of presentation.

2022
№ 4
(Vol. 9)

The proposed article is devoted to the analysis of the characteristic features of popular science communication in the digital media environment. The current models of scientific communication are analyzed, the key trends of modern society are identified — mediatization and digitalization, which set the specifics of scientific popularization today. The mediatized forms of science communication testify to the unfolding process of mediatization of science — the growing involvement of media communications in the implementation of scientific activities. The mediatization of science also has its own specifics, which, in particular, is manifested in the growing convergence of the spheres of science and politics. Such politicization of science sets the features of mediatization, which covers the field of scientific activity very unevenly. Those areas of scientific knowledge that are politically in demand are subjected to mediatization to a greater extent. The politicization of science, which is unfolding along with mediatization, makes it possible to identify a similarity between political and scientific communications. The digital media environment of science communications is largely built in a similar way with the space of political communications. It is characterized by polarization and differentiation of the audience. The acceptance of scientific communication is largely determined not by the quality of scientific content, but by the cognitive and value attitudes of users. The principal feature of digital media architecture is its dual nature, which allows it to be equally used both for the dissemination of scientific information and its refutation and approval of false information. Under these conditions, strategies for effective science communication may include measures aimed at increasing the media literacy of the audience, the flexible use of media framing of scientific knowledge, aimed at expanding the audience of science communication and overcoming prejudices regarding new scientific achievements.

2022
№ 4
(Vol. 9)

The article is devoted to the history of Soviet journalism science and the isolation of the mass media language research industry in it. The purpose of the study is to identify the national and cultural specificity of the Russian science of journalism and to popularize its achievements. Based on a comparative analysis of the European, American and Soviet models of the journalism science, it was proved that the important factors in the development of global science was the exchange of research practices both between scientists from different countries and between generations of researchers within the same state. The importance of the personal factor in determining the professional ideology of the science of journalism and its disciplinary structure was established. When addressing of the disciplinary affiliation of media linguistics as a theoretical and methodological basis for speech phenomena of mass communication studying, it was noted that the attribution of media language research to the subject field of journalism theory can be considered the specifics of the national model of science on journalism. Using the example of the history of the development of the Leningrad Scientific and Educational School of Journalism, it was shown that the reproduction of research personnel of narrow media linguistic specialization took place at Leningrad University with specialists with classical philological education. Unique practices of studying media texts in Department of Stylistics and Editing of the Faculty of Journalism of Leningrad State University have developed, as a result of the implementation of an experiment at the university to develop methods for teaching and studying the language of the specialty.

2022
№ 4
(Vol. 9)

The article considers the problem of science representation in media discourse within the framework of cognitive approach and the theory of language interpretation. The object of research encompasses secondary scientific texts: critical reviews, reviews, abstracts presented on the educational and scientific organizations websites, and scientific news releases on sites aimed at net coverage. The research focuses on identifying main factors that determine the interpretative specificity of scientific knowledge in media discourse, with respect to the conceptual nature of secondary language interpretation. The authors argue that distinctive features of scientific knowledge conceptual representation in media highly depend on the basic principles of conceptual interaction between the author of the message and the target audience, as well as on the cognitive processes and mechanisms of meaning construction specific to the secondary language interpretation: the process of conceptual derivation and profiling mechanisms — generalization and specialization. They draw attention to the distinction between messages addressing professional or mass audience in terms of level and volume of transmitted scientific knowledge. Language specificity of its secondary interpretation shows up in the use of basic or special terminology, language derivation models, and types of organization and genre features of discourse. The results and conclusions drawn are substantiated by the analysis of main types and functions of secondary language interpretation: selective, classifying, evaluative, as illustrated by messages from different subject domains. The authors come to the conclusion that degree of effectiveness of conceptual interaction between the author of the message and the target audience in the processes of transmitting and interpreting scientific knowledge largely depends on the alignment in these types and functions of secondary language interpretation applied on both author and audience sides. The latter (especially with respect to the shared knowledge in a particular field) also determines the degree of conflictfree scientific media communication in general.

2022
№ 4
(Vol. 9)

The paper is devoted to the study of the specifics of the communicative behavior of a doctor’s professional linguistic personality in the media discourse. The relevance of the work is determined by the need for a systematic linguistic study of professional communication in new media-discursive conditions, as well as insufficient knowledge of the implementation of the professional linguistic personality of a doctor in the aspect of mediatization of medical discourse. The object of the study is the professional communication of a doctor in the media discourse. The subject of the study is the contexts of a medical TV program, representing the communicative behavior of a doctor’s PNL. The purpose of the study is to identify the discursive specifics of the communicative behavior of the professional language personality of a doctor in a television program about health. The research methodology was discourse analysis, on the basis of which the parameters for describing the doctor’s communicative behavior in the media discourse were determined. The features of doctor’s media communication in telediscourse are revealed taking into account the goals of professional activity and within the framework of the status-role culture of the profession, the processes of transformation of strategic planning of doctor’s communication are analyzed, the hierarchy of the communicative goals of a medical worker in television programs about health is determined. The discursive specificity of the doctor’s communicative behavior in television discourse is characterized. It has been established that the professional linguistic personality of a doctor in the media discourse is a special type of professional linguistic personality that functions in the media environment and is formed by a complex of social and communicative roles of a representative of the medical community and status in the media space.

2022
№ 4
(Vol. 9)

A study was made of non-verbal signs used to visualize the printed text of advertising, selected both by belonging to the corresponding subdiscourse and taking into account the territorial feature. Advertising as a type of media text, which has a special composition and influences consumer behavior with the help of specific means, consists of two interrelated codes: a verbal code and a visual code. It has been established that the non-verbal code of this type of text not only transmits information about over-the-counter drugs in order to maintain and enhance sales, but also contains information about the cultural situation of the country, about ethnocultural stereotypes and values prevailing in German society, contributing, in turn, their promotion in society. The authors, setting themselves the goal of identifying the visual resources involved in the creolized advertising texts of leading German pharmaceutical companies, attempt to systematize the idea of the visualization tools used here, correlating with gender parameters, national and cultural characteristics of Germany, its national identity, taking into account technological solutions in the colour picker. The suggestive potential of visual means that affect the potential consumer of over-the-counter medicines due to the appeal to what is close and understandable to him as a representative of a certain cultural community or gender has been determined. It was revealed that in the visual plan, advertising of over-the-counter drugs not only adapts to the cultural environment, reflecting the originality of the national-specific picture of the world of the Germans, their mentality and preferred lifestyle but also reveals a close connection with the symbols of medicine. Cultural signs, directly related to the cultural and value space of Germany, are a universal tool for influencing potential consumers of over-the-counter medicines.

2022
№ 4
(Vol. 9)

Trends in mediatization of various spheres of our life, accompanied by an increase in audience interest in video content, make the problem of studying the latter from the standpoint of the effectiveness of its participation in the process of internalization of scientific knowledge relevant. This process is complicated by such features of the network environment as the low level of professionalism of a number of authors, the active process of spreading pseudoscientific information, and the highly competitive nature of relations between bloggers in the network space. The first two problems are being overcome by bloggers as researchers note the professionalization of the blogosphere. The last problem is solved by the authors themselves inside the materials. To solve it, bloggers often resort to updating the key meta-programs that dominate the modern media field. The article analyzes the verbal means of emphasizing these programs in the Russian-language sector of popular science video blogging. Based on the analysis of the verbal level of the releases of the most popular YouTube channels, a conclusion is made about the frequency of occurrence of each of these meta-programs in the structure of the media text. The fact of the dependence of the degree of popularity of the metaprogram on the scientific sphere, which is the subject of the narration, is established. The conclusion is made about the dominance of the metaprogram “values” as the most appropriate for this sector of media. It is concluded that in a situation where scrolling is the basis of the user’s information behavior on the network, it is the titles of the videos (along with the preview) that stimulate the viewer’s interest, and metaprograms play an important role in this process.

2022
№ 4
(Vol. 9)

Relevance of our research is determined by the practical results of three scientific analyzes. The first one has showed Top-10 discussed problems on Internet with the key words “modern system” (with “Modern system of education” on the Runet’s top). The second one is a survey of Internet communication. It demonstrates humorous component in media-texts on a given theme. The third one is the main pragmalinguistic analysis. It deals with the media-texts with a humorous component from the ambivalent point of view. Empirical base of our paper is the media-texts with humorous component. They are devoted to the educational process in Russian Federation in 2020. The texts were analyzed with conative oriented strategies “Author`s expectation” and “Author`s assessment. The expectation category is connected with “accepted” or “facial reality” of the media-text`s sender; assessment category reflected positive-approving, negative-disapproving and neuter- indifferent assessment contains a certain affective reaction on situation. The strategies are textual and regulatory simultaneously. They may be applied not only according to the indicator`s direction to the media text`s receiver, but according to facial, social and idiographic characteristics of the text`s author. The subject of the research is the author’s choice of those variants of the statement which are preferable for material presentation and for latent regulation of the receiver. SSG (smaller scale syntax group) is the unit of our analysis. The sender of the text is obligatory actualized definite grammar form in this group. Ambivalent approach “assessment vs reaction” — “assessment vs reality” to media area in terms of laughter culture has revealed mixed feelings of the media-text`s senders to the modern system of education and it is a part of mass consciousness. Media-texts with humor effect create the ambivalent part of mass consciousness as a common experience and response to crisis of Russian Federation educational system.

2022
№ 4
(Vol. 9)

The article is devoted to identifying specifics of modern popular science media discourse. The authors conduct a comparative communicative-pragmatic and stylistic analysis of composition, speech means and discursive techniques of educational radio programs which have such feature as explicated dialogicality — representing conversation between a journalist and an expert. The leading principle of popular science radio program is dialogization: actual dialogue between a journalist and an expert is supplemented by conditional dialogue between a journalist and a scientist who does not participate in the program, as well as between a journalist and a generalized addressee — a representative of mass audience. The article notes such journalist speech moves that contribute to dialogization of discourse, as evaluation and criticism of expert’s statements by the program host and also use of “naive listener” speech mask. The tactics of illustrative explanation, appeal to personal experience, and stylistic transformation used by radio journalists are considered. The authors note the redistribution of lexical means between participants of the dialogue, characteristic of the era of Internet communication: scientific terminology is actively used by the presenter, and stylistically low lexemes — by the expert, which entails a relative stylistic uniformity with the predominance of conversational tonality. This set of techniques determines the priority communicative position of journalist, which is not typical for classical popular science discourse. The authors conclude that the popular science sub-style belongs to the journalistic style of modern Russian language. The principle of dialogicality of popular science discourse creates in the listener the idea that the authors of radio program conduct a conversation with him on an equal footing. The willingness of a journalist to model in his mind the image of a possible recipient and act in his interests ensures the effectiveness of popularization of scientific knowledge in modern mass media.

2022
№ 4
(Vol. 9)

Science media discourse is dynamically developing in the 21st century, and the genre of a press release is gaining its popularity in the modern context of mediatization of science. Despite that, a press release remains to be underestimated both in media linguistics and in applied linguistics, English for specific purposes (ESP), and academic writing. The purpose of the article is to describe the process of teaching a press release within the framework of genre pedagogy. The first objective is to explore the hybrid nature of a press release by addressing the headlinesecondary headline-lead structure in English and Russian in the deconstruction stage. In the independent construction stage, the English-language press releases of Russian students are analyzed with a special emphasis on framing elements structure. The results showed the following trends. Students ignored secondary headlines, avoided hedges, and chose the favorite expressive means of the Russian tradition — alliteration and personification, thus demonstrating the influence of the Russian language and culture. In the process of writing leads, students used two major strategies. The first strategy was in telling a story of a research event and “forgetting” the scientific component. Another strategy was a different one — foregrounding the scientific component of the text. Students overexplained the topic and problem, making a lead similar to the Introduction of the research article. In both cases, hybridization of a press release seemed to be lost. The research has proven the fact of the significant role of a press release for the Academic Writing course. Undoubtedly, it is a good way to introduce the modern sociocultural context of mediatization of science as well as the variety of genres and their interdiscursive nature. In practice, however, the student writing demonstrates an influence of the Russian tradition in headlines and neglecting the hybrid nature of the genre in leads.