Monday, August 2Институт «Высшая школа журналистики и массовых коммуникаций» СПбГУ

2021. Volume 8, No. 1

2021
№ 1
(Vol. 8)

The problem of textual credibility is considered in line with the theory of reference from the standpoint of a text’s grammar. The referential semantics of a text is determined by the type of discourse in which the text is generated. Subsequently, the criteria for credibility are discur sively conditioned. The article reveals the referential aspects of news media text as a “product” of news discourse with its accuracy and objectivity requirements to factually ascertain a message. To describe these characteristics, the concept of referential density of the text is introduced, which is revealed through macrostructural text analysis. The basic definitions of this analysis are provided, its methodology is described and its testing is carried out to explicate the degree of reference density of the text. The key terms of macrostructural analysis are the macro-textual position and the ways of filling it. The main macro-textual positions of the news media text are headline ↔︎ text, compositional-factual, compositional-logical, compositional-syntagmatic relations and stylistic perspective. The different ways of filling these positions reveal different degrees of factuality/interpretability, which can be located on the reference scale in a certain sequence. Scales for each macro-textual position are combined into a referential matrix of the text, graduated in the direction of decreasing reference density/increasing interpretability. Another way to visualize the results of macro-textual analysis is to construct a radar diagram, on which the referential focus of the text is especially evident. Using the example of three news reports of the Russian press, the analysis of the filling of macro-textual positions, of which reveals varying degrees of reference density, three types of referential focus of news media text are demonstrated: concentrated, shifted and diffused. The distinguished types reflect the corresponding referential types of news media text, the referential density of which is a “linguistic dimension” of its credibility. 

2021
№ 1
(Vol. 8)

The object of consideration in the article is the communicative space of the linguistic community, which can be represented as a set of socio-speech spheres. The subject of the research of the article is the ordinary media communication as a socio-speech sphere with its inherent discursive practices and genre forms of their implementation. The article defines the boundaries of the manifestation of everyday media communication. The sphere of ordinary media communication is differentiated on the basis of two oppositions, taking into account a type of linguistic personality and a type of communicative context: a professional/nonprofessional linguistic personality, a natural/artificial communicative context. On this basis, the following manifestations of ordinary media communication are distinguished as follows: nonprofessional everyday media discourse, pseudo-media discourse, everyday professional media discourse. On the basis of the typology of speech events as narrative, declarative and representative, discursive practices are distinguished into event-ideas, referential and textual events. Narrative discursive practices actualize textual events. They recreate a textual event as a communicative event that is delayed in time. These discursive practices are implemented in the genres of everyday conversation and private history. The declarative discursive practices are related to the actualization of the referential events. This is a manifestation of the reflective activities of native speakers, the result of which is their judgments on the media activities: issues of media activity, about their work, etc. These discursive practices are implemented in the genres of media myths and superstitious media features. The representative discursive practices actualize event-ideas, presenting an interpretation of various media events. The article considers such genres of their implementation as media anecdotes, media commentary and the media “note” genre as the implementation of pseudo-media discourse.

2021
№ 1
(Vol. 8)

The article is devoted to the phenomenon of post–truth in the modern media space, particularly in Spain. For the first time, the neologism “post-truth” was recorded in the explanatory dictionaries of the Spanish language in 2017. It was nominated for the “word of the year”. Interest in studying this phenomenon is growing every year as post-truth has become an integral part of the modern media space around the world. The phenomenon is widely studied in modern science. The research material for the article is the daily social and political newspaper ABC, which is considered one of the leading publications related to quality press in Spain. The author examines the phenomenon of post-truth on the material of newspaper publications devoted to the problem of violence against women during the state of emergency in Spain (from March 14 to June 21) due to COVID-19. The analysis of the published material in the newspaper (more than 250 articles) showed that journalists are actively using linguistic techniques of manipulative influence on the reader — exaggeration of facts or their distortion/inaccuracy, use of affective vocabulary, vivid and memorable phraseological units, epithets, comparisons, reference to unreliable sources and appeal to civil liability. All these linguistic methods contribute to the formation of a distorted picture of the actual situation in Spanish society regarding gender-based violence. The author revealed that the statistics in the newspaper do not correspond to the official data. All this testifies to the phenomenon of post-truth in the modern media space in Spain. The findings confirm that modern journalism plays on people’s emotions and feelings to attract the reader.

2021
№ 1
(Vol. 8)

The article examines the thematic organization of instructional texts in the aspect of problems relevant to work on the creation of a cognitive assistant. The purpose of the assistant is to provide a user with the necessary information to follow the rules of a particular scenario to successfully achieve a goal according to the search query. The query containing certain keywords, further specified as the task being solved, is focused on a detailed set of topics which mark the subject areas reflected in the scenario. The authors of the article provide a review of some linguistic works devoted to the issues of theme-rhematic structuring of a produced text and its compression within the limits of keywords. The importance of the description of the text’s thematic chains, to obtain the detailed objective information on its thematic structure, is emphasized. When comparing the list of keywords identified by the automatic system TextApplianсe in a collection of Internet-extracted instructional texts retrieved from the Internet with the results of hand-held analysis of these texts, to determine the place of various nominative units in the text’s thematic organization, the authors consider the most significant characteristics of a keyword shown in different nominative units to varying degrees. This is a high indicator of a text identifier, content capacity, and communicative significance of a word or a substantive phrase as a marker of important information for a recipient. Defining keywords in whole instructional texts and in relatively independent text fragments (subtexts) that describe individual stages of the user’s goal achievement (for example, the stages of selecting a car, its inspection, making a transaction, car registration) makes it possible to improve the quality of scenario identification in the Network. Extracting keywords along with their context allows for the creation of a recommendations’ database for users automatically. The significance of the theme-rhematic text structure analysis, as a sign for its modeling in the sign picture of the world, is revealed.

2021
№ 1
(Vol. 8)

Today, the use of language on the Internet is the most important environment for the emergence of new language customs and variant forms. The article presents search results and the quantitative and qualitative analysis of two syntactic constructions: X and their non-normative variants: Y. The study takes into account the numerical ratio of normative and nonnormative constructions, comparative data from various types of discourses and media texts, including those derived from Polish Internet speech in its interactive and non-interactive variants, and a comparison of data from various periods (until 2000, 2001–2010, after 2010), when the Polish language did not succumb to the influence of network communication (or its impact was less). The sources of data are the National Corpus of Polish, Monco PL online news search engine and Forumowisko PL online forums. The overarching aim of the research is the initial implementation of research postulates formulated both in normative linguistics (developing research tools that will allow for the codification of the standard norm of Polish to be re-codified) and in the field of media linguistics (developing criteria for assessing the rules of communication in the network that will take into account the normative aspect of language in combination with the rules governing Internet communication).

2021
№ 1
(Vol. 8)

The article is devoted to the features of speech influence in online advertising of educational services. Educational advertising is a type of advertising aimed at promoting educational services, which aims to form the addressee’s belief in the need to use the services of the advertised educational institution. It is argued that the specificity of pedagogical advertising discourse is determined by the goal setting, the importance of the offer to the recipient, the characteristics of the advertised object and the difficulty of carrying out manipulative influence due to the verifiability of the result. Informational, admonishing, and reminiscent ads are highlighted. Pedagogical advertising is characterized by specific features of methods of speech influence and manipulative tactics. Among the methods of speech influence, the most effective is the method of persuasion. No less important is the role played by the methods of inducement, suggestion and imitation. A characteristic feature of educational advertising is the active use of logical arguments when creating arguments. Using emotional arguments helps to increase the impact of an advertisement’s message. By influencing consumer’s emotions, the addresser offers not only educational services, but also positive emotions. When building an emotional argument in educational advertising, emotional and emotional-evaluative vocabulary is used primarily to arouse positive emotions associated with an educational institution in the recipient. It has been determined that the most frequent means of speech influence in pedagogical advertising are positive evaluative vocabulary and vocabulary with emotional and expressive coloring, a verb in the imperative mood, rhetorical means of expression, and above all tropes and figures. The article reveals that advertising texts in the educational sphere have a large number of expressive syntactic constructions and rhetorical figures (first of all, repetition, question-answer constructions, rhetorical appeal, rhetorical exclamation, antithesis). Manipulative speech influence in educational advertising is not frequent. In the pedagogical advertising text, two main manipulative tactics are distinguished: manipulations based on weaknesses and manipulations based on needs.

2021
№ 1
(Vol. 8)

The article presents the results of a study of the specifics of Russian media speech in the Republic of Moldova on the example of news broadcasts of the RTR Moldova TV-channel. The actual modern position of the Russian language on the territory of the country within the framework of the current state policy and the situation of Russian-language broadcasting in the country were studied. Theoretical material on the specifics of Russian language in the Republic of Moldova was studied and systematized. The history of the creation and specifics of the functioning of the Russian-language TV-channel RTR Moldova were reviewed in terms of current legislation. Methods of quantitative and comparative analysis, induction, synthesis of theoretical and practical knowledge were used. The study’s empirical base includes video material of 41 news programs of “Vesti-Moldova” and “Vesti nedeli-Moldova”. Broadcasts in 2019 comprised the overall chronological period of the research, thanks to the use of a “seasonal” sample (a week of winter, spring, summer and autumn seasons), which contributed to a more objective identification of the dynamics of the presenters’ and correspondents’ media speech on RTR Moldova. The article provides a classification of errors related to grammar, spelling, stylistics of offscreen text and logic of operational information presentation. The features of using means of artistic expression were also studied. Tendencies of bilingualism in the speech of inhabitants of the Republic of Moldova are indicated, which are reflected in the television broadcast, are highlighted in the article. At the same time, it is emphasized that on-air programs in Russian are in demand by the audience, however, at the state level, the process of imposing content in Romanian on the viewer is strongly supported. In this regard, the volume of Russian-language broadcasts is decreasing every year.

2021
№ 1
(Vol. 8)

The situation triggered by the coronavirus pandemic has demonstrated the need to simplify medical terminology for better understanding by the public. The goal of specialized communication on medical topics is to more efficiently transfer and assimilate information that is important to human health, which has become literally vital in the times of COVID-19. Such circumstances lead to the fact that medical terminology is no longer the exclusive prerogative of the professional vocabulary of medical personnel, but is already more and more integrated into the vocabulary of everyday use, and is also widely used in mass media. A cognitive  approach to terminology helps to extract specialized knowledge encoded in terms, simplifies specialized translation and contributes to mass communication at a global level. This study, using the example of Russian-German-Spanish medical terminology, demonstrates the fact that an effective and intuitive presentation of specialized concepts helps to correctly apply international terminology, and most importantly, allows its target audience to assimilate the knowledge behind it in a structured form. This cognitive approach to medical terminology serves public health purposes by facilitating the communication between doctor and patient, on the success of which the life and health of society depends. It also argued that the correct interlanguage terminology management facilitates the constructive exchange of experience and cooperation between doctors, specialists, scientists, healthcare organizations and specialized translators, whose joint work at the global level is now especially necessary for medicine.