Tuesday, May 28Институт «Высшая школа журналистики и массовых коммуникаций» СПбГУ
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2024. Volume 11, No. 1

2024
№ 1
(Vol. 11)

The problem of gender-based violence is one of the key in the most modern societies including Spain. In the country where the tradition of patriarchal relations is rooted feminist organisations, nongovernment and state organisations are constantly fighting with the gender asymmetry. In addition, the topic of gender-based violence receives special attention in the Spanish media. There are even sections in leading newspapers named “Gender-based Violence” or “Domestic Violence”. The phenomenon of gender-based violence in the context of gender language policy is actively discussed. Spain is one of the leading countries in adopting progressive gender laws aimed to combat gender-based violence. This very active attitude towards the problem of gender-based violence contrasts with the language policy in this area. Analysis of the actual linguistic material, extralinguistic situation in the country, study of the data of official statistics allowed the author to come to the conclusion that in the modern Spanish reality there is an imbalance between extralinguistic factors (active struggle against gender-based violence, presence of progressive laws) and the same language, in which the term violencia de género has not yet been codified in the dictionary of the Royal Academy of the Spanish language (while in other dictionaries and glossaries the concept is interpreted). The combination violencia de género is widely used in the Spanish speech, in the scientific papers and in the Spanish media space, that is confirmed by the Spanish language database. Free interpretations of this term because of its absence in the main dictionaries do not help the society to understand the problem properly and eradicate it.

2024
№ 1
(Vol. 11)

A considerable amount of research has established that media discourse is an interactive event whose success and efficiency depend on speaker-listener relationship. Yet the nature of this interaction has been explored in a great number of studies, few works deal with how TED speakers address the needs of their listeners and manage the interaction with them. TED is considered to be one of the new ways of spreading scientific information online. Due to being an emerging genre, TED Talks have barely been analyzed in terms of popularization tools used to facilitate listeners’ comprehension of materials presented by TED speakers. Drawing on a corpus of 80 transcripts of TED Talks derived from the ted.com website, this study explores how TED speakers elaborate their ideas to address listeners’ needs. The aim of this research is to explore the types of code glosses, their lexical realizations, pragmatic functions and frequencies of occurrence. In order to explore the types and frequency of code glosses employed in TED lectures, the present study applied the quantitative method. With the aim of identifying the pragmatic functions the code glosses serve in TED Talks, the study applied the interpretative method. The analysis of the corpus revealed that code glosses are a crucial element of expert-lay interactions serving the popularization function. Two types of code glossing were employed by TED speakers with the predominance of exemplifiers intended to facilitate listeners’ comprehension and make speaker’s ideas accessible through illustration or scenario-based elaboration. All code glosses found in the corpus serve the popularization purpose which indicates that TED speakers made attempts to recontextualize scientific content and make specialized concepts comprehensible for a lay listener.

2024
№ 1
(Vol. 11)

The article explores two media discourse formats, film and TV interview as manifesting the specific distribution of two communicative modalities — speech and gesture — in the multimodal deixis of discourse space construal in narratives. To identify the attribution of speech and gesture to two media formats, the study contrasts the plot contents and viewer engagement as two major coordinates of discourse space in media. We hypothesize that since these two formats display differences in their plot content and viewer engagement characteristics, their distribution might affect the way the actors employ speech and gesture to present the discourse space. The research data are 20 film and TV interview narratives with 10 highly rated Russian actors (5 men and 5 women). The study exploits the method of multimodal analysis to determine the contingency patterns of discursive schemata presenting discourse space in speech and of discursive schemata presenting object of reference, move and frame of reference in deictic gesture. The results show that multimodal deixis contributes to intensifying both types of these characteristics. While multimodal deixis in film manifests the preference for metonymic pointing, placement indication and speech event construal; in TV interview, we observe the significant prevalence of metaphoric pointing, path indication and narrative event construal. Additionally, TV interviews display the speech schemata specifying information and accentuating the place of referent within the speech or narrative event. Overall, the study shows that there are two basic types of discourse characteristics which produce higher distinctions in multimodal deixis between film and TV interview formats; these are different narrative regimes and different combination of staged performance and spontaneity.

2024
№ 1
(Vol. 11)

The article considers the structuring regularities of the polycode text functioning in the news feeds of the technical universities websites. The relevance of the research is due to the need for a linguistic description of various formats and genres of digital communication. The novelty of the research lies in the comprehensive analysis of the scientific news feed of technical universities. The purpose of the study is to analyze the verbal (verbal media topics, themes) and non-verbal (graphics, illustrations, visual media topics) components of a polycode text. The research methods are content analysis, graphical and semiotic analysis. The multidimensional characterization of the various components of the text of scientific content makes it possible to identify the thematic dominants of university content, as well as a system of paraverbal techniques for its design. The discourse analysis makes it possible to establish inter-semiotic relations that reflect the distribution of meaning at the level of the verbal and visual code of the text. The image of the technical university as a research structure in the relevant fields of science and production dominates at the level of verbal codes. Herewith, the scientist (as a person) is on the periphery, but it provides the research process. Visual media topic is dominated by the image of a male scientist (as a person), which is a more significant component in the structure of the scientific process than the process itself and the scientific community. The visual components of the text (graphics and illustrations) are distinguished by a narrow repertoire of techniques. The analysis of verbal and visual media topics showed a logical inversion. The visual code complements and compensates for the verbal code, and vice versa. These data are consistent with the established dominant function of illustrations in the news text: the function of a supplement.

2024
№ 1
(Vol. 11)

The article focuses on the objectionable potential of irony using popular science media texts. The empirical basis was the hypermedia text of the news about the refutation of the serotonin theory of depression, which predetermined a significant shift in ideas about the disease. The purpose of the article is to identify and analyze the variability in the implementation of ironic objection. The latter seems to be a complexly organized speech action, which is based on goal setting, which constitutes a subgoal in achieving the main communicative goal of the hypermedia text. The pre-established multitasking of the study determined the choice of approach to analysis — the praxeological method of media linguistics. As the analysis of the material has shown, objection demonstrates the moment of transition of scientific knowledge from hypotheticality to a state of epistemological certainty. Objection helps to overcome unproductive tendencies in the system of academic views. Linguistically significant characteristics of ironic objection in popular science media discourse include extensive heuristic potential, projection of the development of epistemological modality, critical rethinking of extra-linguistic situations, involvement of the addressee in discussion, debatable nature, and requiring interpretive effort. The results obtained during the study — linguistic models of the representation of ironic objection — demonstrate a paradigm shift in scientific views about the mechanisms of depressive disorder and the key lines of understanding in the public consciousness of the problems correlated with the identified epistemological crisis. In this study, patterns of speech representation of ironic objection are identified and typologized on the basis of repeated and regularly reproduced linguistic markers.

2024
№ 1
(Vol. 11)

The work is devoted to the study of modern mechanisms for creating a joke in spontaneous, natural, unprepared Russian speech. One of the objectives of the study was to identify the most common language models for creating the funny in spontaneous dialogic media speech. Seven video programs (in the genre of interviews, podcasts, entertainment shows) on YouTube video channels were considered — from 2017 to 2022. These are programs that position themselves as entertainment content: “Evening Urgant”, “Comedy Club”, “Seryozha and Microphone”, “Night Story”. The analysis made it possible to identify 104 dialogic unities containing humorous statements, which were then carefully studied from the semantic, pragmatic and structural points of view. The pragmatic perlocutionary effects of these speech acts are described separately. Of particular interest were such remarks-reactions of the speakers, which are born “here and now”, spontaneously, are not prepared jokes, but a lively and quick response to the words of the interlocutor. The study of the material showed that the main source of humor in spontaneous dialogue are tropes, the main ones being allusion, allegory and hyperbole. Means of polysemy and cases of violation of style (low burlesque) are also frequent. In addition, significant indicators are in repetitions that perform an auxiliary function. The main pragmatic perlocutionary effect in media speech can be considered the joy of recognizing a new meaning, a new look at familiar phenomena. The creative manifestations of the person creating a humorous statement include “a sense of success, triumph”, “the pleasure of the creator who created a unique product”. A joke in a dialogue can perform the function of “preventing the opponent’s aggressive behavior”. The request of the viewer, who massively watches such programs, suggests that this content reduces the level of their life stress, anxiety, tension from the challenges of the real world.

2024
№ 1
(Vol. 11)

The study deals with the main and relevant directions and approaches to the discourse analysis of domestic and foreign scientists, structuring and building a scheme for analyzing media texts of a political orientation in order to identify the main ideological content, as well as the specifics of its expression in the text. The purpose of this study is to establish interdisciplinary approaches and methods of working with politically oriented text and the prospects of their use to assess the results of influence on the addressee. The authors present the main approaches to such analysis, give an overview of domestic and foreign methods used in discourse analysis, and consider the prospects of their use for assessing the effectiveness of impact, both on the part of the author of the discourse text and on the part of the addressee. Depending on the tasks being solved, both classical and interdisciplinary methods were used as research methods: when creating a historical review, a descriptive-comparative method was used in combination with a classification of approaches to discourse analysis; for developing the problem of impact, the method of critical discourse analysis was used in combination with content analysis of the text. In the course of the work, the sequence of performing certain well-known techniques of analyzing a politically directed text was clarified and the content of P. A. Stolypin according to the scheme proposed by the authors, taking into account the specifics of the linguistic content. In the course of solving this problem and in order to increase the degree of objectivity of the results obtained, machine word processing was additionally used (text information processing programs such as VAAL, Wordstat Yandex, etc.). The authors come to the need for a complex application of traditional methods and automated processing for the objectification of the results obtained.

2024
№ 1
(Vol. 11)

Modern society today is subject to global processes of Westernization, the purpose of which is to subjugate other cultures to Western influence. Thanks to the powerful potential of the virtual space to disseminate the necessary ideas, a certain vision is imposed and mass manipulation of the consciousness of citizens is carried out. The consistent and long-term policy of the Western world promotes the image of evil Russians, that leads to a surge in discrimination against representatives of the Russian-speaking culture. The image of the evil people is broadcast in the media and cinema, media personalities and politicians talk about it. Such negative representation of Russians leads to their hostility. Intolerance towards the citizens of the Russian Federation arise in the minds of a wide audience, which is reflected in both verbal and non-verbal ways. The author aims: 1) to conduct a study of interrogative sentences in the social network Reddit, one of the most famous and frequently visited Internet platforms in the world; 2) to identify Russophobic sentiments, and 3) to make an attempt to systematize the idea of the functions of interrogative sentences. Interrogative sentences are analyzed from the point of view of their secondary function — the transfer of information, feelings and one’s attitude to any situation. Selected by continuous sampling and carefully analyzed interrogative sentences allow us to draw a conclusion about the Russophobic mood that is inherent in the population of the Western world. The author has found that interrogative sentences are aimed at expressing accusations, insults and gloating. The objects of Russophobia are the Russian Federation itself, the President Vladimir Vladimirovich Putin and the citizens of the country. It was revealed that Russophobia is observed through the use of verbs with negative connotations, negatively colored epithets, parallel constructions, metaphorical models and occasionalisms.