Thursday, November 21Институт «Высшая школа журналистики и массовых коммуникаций» СПбГУ

2018 Volume 5, No. 4

2018 Volume 5, No. 4

2018
№ 4
(5)

The article deals with theoretical methodological basis of media advertising world-image conception as a virtual model. Substantive basis for media advertising world-image is media advertising text, which appears to be a strictly formed structural-semantic unity of contained marketing and esthetical information directed to formation of the particular behavioral reaction. Pragmatic goal of advertising communication in the pure form is implemented in commercials. Other types of advertising (social, state, political) are a specific class of promotion objects of advertising communication and are based on the bipolar strategies of propaganda and counter-propaganda. The heterogeneity of the system object of the advertising media picture of the world leads to its fragmentation. Subject-object world of media advertising world-image is a unique semiotic continuum where the sphere of advertised objects is closely connected with the subjective sphere while the latter is directed to the presentation of goods in the system of subject’s life values. Great number of various chronotopes aimed at the specific cultural sense expression can characterize media advertising world-image, reflecting complexity and variety of social, national, mental, ethic-esthetical relations. An object becomes primary in the media advertising world-image; it makes the space conception sensible as a place for an object and time conception as object’s feature. The modelling of space-time continuum is aimed at human’s triumph over the world of nature and objects in media advertising text. Time and space presents here a hyperreal and hyper subjective thing which can be controlled and made to work for you.

2018
№ 4
(5)

The ubiquitous growth of Internet provokes the oversaturation of e‑advertising. The phenomenon of advertising blindness and the distribution of banner blocking software make to integrate brand messages into online content. The native advertising is considered as one of the most effective tools for brands’ digital communication. Research material covers all content of native advertising published in the three largest Internet publications in the Russian-speaking segment of the Net for one-year period. The hypothesis that the structure of the text of native advertising corresponds to the structure of the usual advertising text, and it possesses the same stylistic features as traditional advertising is proved. The analysis testifies that the texts of native advertising are characterized by the following: conciseness (short sentences and paragraphs, simple syntax); concreteness (the absence of lyrical digressions, arguments, descriptions of well-known facts), the text is constructed for the target audience benefits (usually one central idea prevails in the text, and it conveys just one thought to its audience); originality (there are no bureaucratic clichés and red tape); simplicity in the choice of vocabulary; enhanced use of imaginative means of speech, increased number of metaphors and emotional lexis. The style of advertising is usually correlated with the company’s philosophy. When building an advertising text, the “attention — interest — desire — action” scheme effectively works, motivating the brand target audience to become its supporters. It is found that the lowest ad text efficiency is caused by long texts and the highly specialized materials or texts dedicated to general topics. It is assumed that in Russian-speaking media, native advertising becomes a new stage in the development of media advertising in general. Brands as advertisers should change their approach and adapt their communication strategy, starting from the realities and modern technologies possibilities. The storytelling narration presents the most effective tools for advertising writing.

2018
№ 4
(5)

The object of this article is the Soviet advertisement of the certain period — the period of the advertisement poster, which allows comparing it with the pre-revolutionary advertisement with regard to the purpose and factual influence as the main function of advertisement. Advertisement poster is creolized (multimodal) text, which is composed of visual and textual elements. Therefore, the article analyses the extralinguistic factors, which caused an uprise of advertisement in the society with no competition in combination with a description of the representative and verbal components. The exceptional interest in this article lies in the advertisement of the beer market. The reason of such attention to the advertisement of beer is stipulated by a complete government monopoly on producing goods in the USSR, but the beer market was distinguished by a variety of manufacturers of beer in one or another way demonstrating the special qualities of their product, that remotely resembled a competitive market. The article describes both differences of Soviet and pre-revolutionary advertisement of beer and a kind of continuity of images, names and linguistics forms, that may be an indicator of the national identity of the advertising industry. Soviet advertisement of beer and other food products was both educational and ideological. Unlike pre-revolutionary advertisement, it appealed to the conscious structures of the mentality (it was rational), while pre-revolutionary advertisement created an attractive image of the product (it was atmospheric).

2018
№ 4
(5)

The article concerns the characteristics of communication that can differ in different types of discourse. Some features are called prototypical and were mentioned among others in Gricean principles (sincerety, intention to inform and to be informed etc.). But are they really of such importance for everyday communication? The attention of the author is focused on peculiarities of advertizing? Most of them had been revealed by special researches. The most important of these features are the following: little importance of informative function, that is overcome by manipulation (perlocutive function), absence of interest to messages demonstrated by addressees, disbelief (total or partial) to the content, regarding communication as a game and some others. These phenomena are often regarded as specifics of the discourse of advertizing or mass communication. But the attention to these features while analyzing other types communication including interpersonal, helped to find them nearly everywhere though not to such extent as in advertizing. Namely such types of communication as interpersonal talk ‘adult — child’, ‘boss — hired person’ demonstrated the absence of interest, feedback and some others. The features mentioned above were also found in such types of discourse as political (some types of speeches), religious discourse (homiletics) and some others. Some examples of manipulation in interpersonal communication are analyzed. It is shown in this article, that these features can be met in other types of communication though not so evidently. So the advertizing discourse is used to reveal more keenly the principles of communication per se.

2018
№ 4
(5)

The contribution highlights the state of the art in linguistic advertology which is viewed as a reflection of dominating trends in modern linguistics. The article discusses the factors which influence the development of linguistic advertology and demonstrates indissoluble connection between modern tendencies in the Humanities and social life. The paper examines various approaches to the study of advertising as well as methods of its investigation, and suggests classification of advertological studies. The study of advertising in general and of its linguistic features in particular presuposses understanding of the roles it plays in integrated marketing communications, as well as of the place it occupies in the media environment. The research has revealed the importance of functional and integrated approaches to the analysis of communicative processes in advertising sphere. The investigation also resulted in outlining general vectors in the analysis of advertising communication and advertising discourse. The main trends in linguistic analysis of advertising are in the focus of attention. The article underlines academic capability of linguo-cognitive and linguo-stylistic studies of advertising. Analysis has demonstrated that in order to create an efficient advertising message it is essential to take into consideration various factors which influence the use of language units in advertising environment, it is also important to understand the picture of the world of the target audience. The paper suggests the definition of advertising discourse, describes the types of advertising communication, outlines the subject, the object and the aims of linguistic advertology, classifies its objectives, and describes ways of their achievement.

2018
№ 4
(5)

The article considers the contemporary advertising of the language picture of a stout person, an addressee of a certain category of goods i. e. clothes of large sizes. The generalized image of the addressee (a typical representative of the target audience) is believed to be one of the most important components of advertising communication, which should be identifiable by the addressee while perceiving the advertisement. The defining marker of the target audience (body thickness) chosen for the analysis of the goods category refers to the sensitive sphere and therefore is in the zone of a communicative risk and demands increased commercial tolerance. The analysis is based on a wide sample of different promotional messages that fall under the goods category .clothes of a large-size” (advertising texts of large-size clothing online stores, advertising posters etc.). The most frequent characteristics of a representative of the target audience are identified in the relevant advertising messages (in particular gender, age, psychographic and other parameters), as well as the repertoire of the language tools and communication strategies used for this purpose. As a result, the author comes to the conclusion that the specificity of the language of the studied product category is largely formed by the expected needs of the addressee, the need to correct his picture of the world and psychological state.

2018
№ 4
(5)

The article is devoted to the detection of the popular image of an advertising name among Russian native speakers. By the general term “advertising name”, we mean such proper names which are used for denoting the objects under advertising campaigns (the names of goods, services, commercial enterprises). All-Russian internet name contests can show the native speakers’ attitude to such names, as far as the large collectives of people united by a single nominative task are concerned. We purposefully took four internet contests of the last decade aimed at naming objects from various business spheres, such as the names of a car, a banking card, a chain store, and a housing complex. The analysis included the whole body of the competing names. This approach determines the usage of a complex methodology, which includes the onomasiologic analysis and the discourse analysis. The onomasiologic analysis presupposes the classification of all the competing names on the basis of common semantic characteristics. The discourse analysis enabled us to decompose complex naming processes on consequent stages. The analysis of the contesting names has proven that Russian speakers’ mass consciousness operates certain steady ideas on what an advertisement name should be concerning its form and content. These ideas contain the understanding of appropriate advertising naming techniques. They appear as the result of various allusions which have been established in mass linguistic consciousness and may link to existing naming trends, popular advertising techniques, post-modernistic aesthetics, or peculiar internet communication features. The results of the study may be regarded as the starting point for further researches of the subjects and addressees in the process of advertising naming as well as their linguistic portraits.

2018
№ 4
(5)

The paper deals with the analysis of the manipulative strategy, communication tactics and the concrete methods of their realization in advertising discourse. The author considers two stages of these manipulative tactics and shows their specific role in the concrete texts. Tactic of manipulative representation of information and tactic of manipulation from the feeling are considered. The author analyses the variety of the information manipulative representation tactic — method of use the interest to additional information in the advertising texts. The method is based on the drawing attention to beginning of the promotional article. The beginning of the advertising article reports interesting information. This part of the article has storyline or development of the plot, similar to a popular scientific, journalistic or entertaining narrative. Therefore, this method may be named as the method of fictionalizing of advertising information. The author investigates this manipulative method and describes its specific characteristics. 7 types (manipulative conversational turns) of manipulative method of use the interest to additional information are considered: factual manipulative turn, thematic manipulative turn, associative manipulative turn, detailing manipulative turn, historic manipulative turn, historic and linguistic manipulative turn, mythical manipulative turn. The author concludes the storyline and the development of the plot are indispensable, obligatory and specific part of such advertising text. It makes read the advertising texts to the end. The method of fictionalizing of advertising information is embodied to be translated into the set of language and composition means — same words and syntactic constructions.

2018
№ 4
(5)

The topic of this article is the concept “chronotope”, created by the great Mikhail Bakhtin, and its use in advertising. This notion is one of the most important in the theory of literature. It also helps a lot of other sciences — theory of communication, applied psychology, psychoanalysis, theory of theatre and cinema, and particularly advertising, other marketing communications and marketing transmedia. The analysis of this concept is done from the standpoint of semiotics and its four parts — alphabetics, semantics, syntactics and pragmatics. The following chronotopes — Female and Male; Ordinary and Mythological; Central and Peripheral; Ordinary and Elevated; “Raw” and “Cooked” chronotopes — are examined in the first part of the article. The chronotopes are studied from the standpoints of semantic field and metaphors in the second part — semantics of chronotopes. The third part examines chronotopes as part of syntactics. The different chronotopes’ links (in the text; between the text and the context; and between the formal and content aspects of texts) are analyzed here. The theory of ad appeals and chronotopes is the topic in the fourth part of the article — pragmatics of chronotopes. The theory of ad appeals (the main psychological drive (motif) for the customers) is integral part of pragmatics. The reason is that the commodity (product) is one and the same, but the different consumers (women, men, with different attitudes, with different education, from different cultures — Russians, French, etc.) are attracted (appealed) to goods because of various emotional and rational reasons. That is why the admen communicate the goods in different ways for the numerous consumer groups and the ad specialists use dissimilar signs accordingly. Due to the volume of the article, only a small part of the big (huge) potential of this universal concept for advertising theory and practice is analysed here.

2018
№ 4
(5)

The article deals with verbal and visual components of the modern Russian companies logos that form an association with the concept of Russia, primarily by including the key lexemes “Russia”, “Rus”, “Russian”. The updating of the ethno-cultural marker in the logos is an advertising incentive for the Russian addressee, as well as for foreign tourists and nostalgic emigrants from Russia. The analyzed logos are considered as creolized advertising microtexts, the components of which mark the cultural space of Russia in different ways. As part of the integrated logo complexes, stereotypical ways of expressing Russian national and cultural identity are revealed. Examines the key words with the root rus/ros creating ethno-labeled connotation. The components of the visual series supporting and developing this concept are analyzed. It is noted that in this segment dominated by the font, stylized old handwritten Cyrillic, clearly correlates the object of advertising with traditional Russian culture. The color design of the font and the background of the logo, which also reflects the old Russian traditions, according to which the “lightful” color scheme prevails and the red color dominates, is studied. The logos reveal images of precedent realities typical for the ancient Russian national and cultural tradition, including the domes of the Orthodox Church, ornaments, amulets and attributes of old Russian clothing, natural symbols and images of folklore and mythological characters. Thus, the close connection of ethno-cultural symbols used in the composition of modern commercial logos with the historical roots of Russian national culture is revealed. Our semiotic analysis of ethno-labeled advertising complexes of polycode character allows us to identify the most frequent markers of Russian national and cultural identity used in them and to draw a conclusion about a set of autostereotype representations of Russians about their country.

2018
№ 4
(5)

This article identifies, describes and analyzes the speech features of the presentation of information in the texts of native advertising placed on the personal pages of leaders of professional communication communities in social networks Facebook, Instagram, VKontakte. For linguistic analysis, in addition to social networks, were involved texts, posted on the official websites in the sections “News”, “About us” etc., which are also qualified by the author as a native advertising. The article proves that the analysis of communicative success of native advertising should be based on such concepts as communicative status, speech behavior, communicative intention of the subject of speech. When certain parameters of these concepts coincide, any publication in the social network acquires a communicative effect of native advertising. The author of the article puts forward the hypothesis that the texts of native advertising have a number of specific features: personification of content, mimicry under the genres corresponding to the pragmatic needs of users in both traditional media and social networks (life story, biography, review, recommendation, advice, instruction, invitation, guide, etc.). To prove this hypothesis, the author analyzed user content on the Internet. As an empirical material for the study were used texts posted in the public opinion leaders (users of social networks with high professional or social status, communication workers: journalists, publishers, PR-specialists, well-known bloggers). The effect of native advertising is explained by the fact that the author of the publication of native advertising has a high communicative status, so the incoming information a priori has a certain guaranteed quality, because it is supported by the reputation of the subject. The author of the article shows by convincing examples that the sender and the reader of native content enter into trust communication at the pre-text level. The reader, when perceiving native content, realizes that the sender makes his post with a certain strategic goal, but accepts it favorably, because he trusts the subject of speech.

2018
№ 4
(5)

The present article considers the nature and specifics of the term “language manipulation strategies” in Bulgaria. This is achieved on the grounds of the clarification of manipulation (as definiteness) and of its importance upon its use in various pre-election campaigns. In connection with this, this article determines the meaning of language manipulation strategies, their scientific nature, as well as their main purpose in the pre-election fight. In addition, the key elements of the so-called “language of change” (after 10.11.1989) in Bulgaria are presented herein, just like the lexical occasionalisms, lexical neologisms, semantic neologisms, the change in the stylistic shade, etc. This article presents a detailed analysis of the so-called “language play” in the advertising text of the respective political subjects. Besides the definiteness of the term in a synthesized order, this article presents six leading variants of a language play — play advertising methods (quotation), a play upon phraseology, methaphorical nomination, a play upon syntagmatics, occasional word creation, and a play upon the black and white drawing. These language plays are also illustrated with the respective examples from preelection campaigns. Special attention is paid to the manipulation rules of political advertising, such as the establishment of the brand (mark), the successful device (slogan, motto), the easy messages, the language manipulations, the “sale” of the charisma, brief speaking, conscious repetition, fabrication, no lies, and “proper” manipulation.