Thursday, November 21Институт «Высшая школа журналистики и массовых коммуникаций» СПбГУ

2018 Volume 5, No. 3

2018 Volume 5, No. 3

2018
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The article is devoted to the main linguistic directions of media Internet space. The boundaries of the object of study are defined, including hypermedia — which uses various means to deliver content simultaneously (offline and online), and the TransMedia — new media (social networks). The major features of Internet media text, primarily focused on by researchers are described: hypertekstuality, multimedia, interactivity, synchronous/asynchronous communication, polysubject. The development of the theoretical apparatus of media studies is shown, the interdisciplinary nature of such disciplines as media linguistics, internet linguistics, mediology is revealed. The integrative nature of media text research methods is noted. The aim is to determine the current perspectives of research of media online text. The researches in the sphere of convergent genres that have emerged at the contact point of different genres and channels of communication are considered to be the most relevant. Transmedia storytelling is considered to become a perspective trend of media text development. The main advantage of transmedia storytelling is the opportunity to create a polyphonic communication net, to engage the consumer in the active interaction, create a mixed reality, combining online and offline communications. The author comes to the conclusion that methodological preconditions for integrative interdisciplinary research of modern media that constitute a new communication format based on collaboration (multi-subject characteristics, active participation of users in content creation) and journalistic of data using all the features of multimedia are currently established. The focus of modern research of the media Internet space is shifting from the study of individual media genres and characteristics of texts related to Internet technologies to the integrative study of the entire media Internet space on the basis of the General theory. The modern study of media text is based on the analysis of all aspects of the multimedia interactive process of media communication.

2018
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The author would like to remove the contradictions between the heterogeneity of elements of communication in the Internet field. The research is supported by RSF, 16–18-02032, devoted to mental-language transformations in the aspect of personal identity. The author investigates the philosophical and theoretical approaches to the consideration of natural language in the categories of occasional originality, pragma-instrumentality, transformability and finiteness associated with the development of communication technologies. The purpose of the article is to analyze the concepts of researchers related to the civilization view at language and speech from the point of view of applied importance for modern media linguistics. The article presents the main aspects of the analysis of the communication realities of electronic mass media from the position of grammatization (the way to consider any forms of languages, including symbolic and metaphoric ones, as a combination of the set of elements and set of conventions. The author chooses as a material two main substantive-thematic directions of scientific research: (1) the concept of finality (exhaustion) of language and (2) concepts, connected with the philosophy of technology. At the intersection of these domains, the possibility of interpreting modern communication in the categories of technical shift leading to the change of the basic medium (verbality) is revealed. This shift may take hundreds of years, but fixing the process of disappearing one of the most universal technologies in the history of mankind (language) is a task of media linguistics exploring the crossroads of technical and linguistic domains. The author supposes that the description of these transit forms of communication field opens new perspectives in front of researchers of the communication field.

2018
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This article presents the results of research on the category of aesthetization on television. The author is interested in one of the levels of television discourse: the relevant programs of Polish tv channels. The research task is to investigate the ways of manifesting aesthetics and the related and perhaps antinomic phenomena in the iconosphere of selected television genres. The material consists of tv films, documentaries and children’s programmes. The article deals with the following categories: aesthetics as the manifestation of the attitude approving the existence of categories centred around the value of beauty; anti-aesthetics as the acceptance for aesthetically negative values; and anaesthetics as the indifference to aesthetic values: both the mild ones and the negative ones. The results of the semiotic examination are as follows. There is no space foranesthetics, i.e. a strategy of indifference on television. It is a place either for aesthetizing or for anti-aesthetizing. The institutional broadcaster always bears the mark of aesthetizing activity; in particular, the presenters and the faces of the station are characterized by telegenicity. The aesthetizing strategy of television has two purposes: promotional and educational. The anti-aesthetizing strategy appears in two roles: exhibitionistic and voyeuristic; the viewer gets the opportunity to pry on their neighbour through the television. Tv dramas and children’s cartoons use aesthetic strategies in an educational function. Documentaries, news programmes and breakfast shows use aesthetizing strategies in the self-promotive function. An interesting field will be to compare the other genres and the other television on the effects of the research.

2018
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The article is dedicated to the virtual reality of the Internet, considered as the image of the event reality displayed on the web pages in the Internet browser. The categorical features of the online virtual reality are tessellation, visual format, carnival character and mobility. The verbal representatives of the picture of reality on the Internet are headlines placed in the banner and the main space of the web page. The subject of research in the article are linguo-cognitive devices of constructing Internet headlines, which provide the transformation of the text information to the self-contained mini-text format of the headline announcement-hyperlink. The study was realized in line with the cognitive-pragmatic approach involving the methods of linguostylistic and discourse analysis; the sources of the empirical material were the web pages of news online portals in the Russian segment of the Internet. The paper reveals various types of transformations in the sphere of nomination, predication and location in their interaction with the cognitive and discursive thesauri of the recipient. In the sphere of nomination, the annihilating, fabricating, indefiniting and modal transformations are distinguished, where the first two types are most frequent. The transformations in the field of predication include semantic and morphological substitutions, elimination and / or complication of the predicate. In the area of location, the annihilating transformations of temporal indicators are mostly observed. Based on the research findings the author concludes about the predominance of techniques of reduction and semantic substitutions, which are aimed to activate by the user the false presuppositions in order for his motivation to follow the hyperlink. As a result of such constructing, accompanied by various visual tools, the virtual reality of the web page takes the pseudo-event form and includes the image of the informational picture of reality transformed in one or another way.

2018
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The topic of enlightenment has become relevant in connection with the development of the information society over the past decade. This topic has become relevant in сonnection with a change in the sociocultural and ideological situation in Russia. The idea of enlightenment was peculiar to the Russian media. It acquired new forms of incarnation Starting with the first newspaper and thanks to the Internet. Since today the functional characteristics of communicants in their relation to the written text are mobile. Internet communication influenced the chronotope of the educational text: it has become less dependent on real time and place. The authors undertook the historical and linguistic excursus: such words as “enlightenment”, “enlightenment”, “enlightener”, “enlighten” were explored. There is a representation of the active and passive subjects of this intellectual-and-sensory action/condition and the discourse nature of the phenomenon being studied in the word “enlightenment”. The analysis of the materials of the National Corpus of the Russian language shows that the adjective “educational” dominated in the 20th century and the adjective “enlightenment” dominated in the 21st century. Analysis of network genres “Newtonew” media project shows that the most frequent genres are popular science articles, reviews, recommendations and announcements. Those texts have cognitive intent, they are created specifically for the Internet, and they are notionally written. The main intentions of the addressee of the educational discourse in the digital sphere are the communication of new information, the detection of false information and the structuring of a known quantity. The study of the texts of the media project “Newtonew” became the basis for the hypothesis of the formation of a new text type — the enlightening network genre. Network enlightening genres based on the principles of the edutainment. They are of an acceptable size, balanced in content and fascinating by form.

2018
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Considering today’s technoculture, overproduction of all symbolic forms and changeable media contexts, it is hard to find a universal criterion used to distinguish between specific forms of media-motivated language. I present the most important findings of Polish scientists researching media linguistics, who wanted to discover general rules of the media use of language and criteria used to differentiate between specific media varieties of language. I discuss approaches assuming the “macro” perspective and searching for very broad categories combining various forms of media use of language. They are for instance the media technology itself (analogue, digital, print media, audiovisual media), message sources (own forms and those distributed through other media, mostly the Internet, certain topics (information, entertainment, education) and genres (established genres, new genres, inter-genre hybrids, senders’ aims, formal situation of media communication (institutional and non-institutional message, political discourses (religious channels, left- and right-wing), ideology of consumerism and its assumptions, tabloidization, institutional and proprietary factors of the media (mostly: public, commercial, private media), pragmatic functions (mostly phatic and persuasive function), styles of messages, and the expected type of sender-recipient interaction (live shows, pre-recorded shows, reactions of the audience invited to the studio) and the target audience (children, adults, including their gender: men, women). The dynamic development of technoculture (e.g. functioning of different media on the Internet, digital and networkrelated, re-mediations of particular technologies and messages), changing ways of receiving media messages (activisation of the audience)and cultural and civilizational contexts are always ahead of accepted theoretical and methodological rules.

2018
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The paper is dedicated to the analyses of the modern media communication participants’ nomination examples as a live speech-creating process occurring in the computer-mediated discourse of the Internet, i.e. in a virtualized social space characterized by the desire to make the dialogue between the communicants maximally close. Interactivity and the involvement of all participants of network interaction into the creation of media content lead to the decentralization of communication and the transformation of the object of media communication into a full-fledged subject and creates the equality of the addressee and addresser. The convergent space of a modern media sphere which definites the media communication participants’ choice of certain speech behavior models is characterized by a specific hierarchy of communicants’ relations within the subject — object or the subject — subject dialogical interaction. Communication in the cognitive specific environment of media-reality allows the users to comprehend and to terminologically determine the role of each personality from the network space (both already known and met for the first time). According to this fact it is difficult to define the place of the subject of media communication in the opposition “the dilettante — the professional” and to qualify it’s nomination as the nomination of the general sort or as the professionally caused nomination what is caused by the most discursive environment of the media reality existence. On this basis, there are three types of a speech personality nomination depending on the nominated subject’s role-determined participation in the process of cognitive identification (identification “from inside”, representation “from outside”, self-determination). The paper questions the duality of the use of individual nominations due to the influence of political and ideological aspects in the evaluating naming of the action that is a means of establishing contact with the audience. Special attention is paid to the degree of professional involvement of media communication subjects in media reality and the formation of the negative connotations with a number of communicants’ denominations because of the characteristics of their network behavior.

2018
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The article is devoted to the analysis of modern newspaper texts, which are characterized by the features of oral speech, coded not only in the lexical and semantic organization of sentences, which has traditionally been the main content of stylistic research, but also in the speech organization of texts aimed at the polythematic representation of reality. The importance of the information structure of the proposals as a means of organizing a coherent text, which reflects the development and transfer of information, including the task of focusing attention, is noted. In this process widely used phrasal accent and prosodic highlighting, which de-automated narrative and perception. Their manifestation is due to the actual partitioning of the proposal that receives the intonational expression. Attention is also paid to the use of structural qualities of oral speech, allowing to introduce different voices of the participants, the interaction between which extends both thematic and interpretative aspect. It has been suggested that the convergence of written language with oral for these parameters does not alter the General character of the writing, where they are techniques for the solution of communicative tasks in the field of communication. Their use creates the illusion of the possibility of including vocabulary belonging to the oral speech beyond the norms of the literary language, which, however, remains unacceptable when installing on it .preservation and observance of aesthetic qualities of the text.

2018
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The productive foundations of value journalism are inevitably associated with the author’s movement towards a professional ideal, with an original vision of events, sincerity of dialogue, sincere openness and fullness, deep insight into social problems, adherence to ethical standards, demonstration of aesthetic preferences, freedom of language skills without a snobbish attitude to any of his elements, including local vocabulary, valuable today by the very fact of existence. The article is dedicated to the range of aesthetic tasks that dialectic units solve in the texts of journalists and publicists of Eastern Siberia. In the center of attention is the use of dialectisms as an actual means of aesthetic influence, a resource for developing an individual style, an ideological and aesthetic motivator when formulating the editorial policy of the publication, the sense-forming and style-forming nucleus of the publicistic text as an independent aesthetic object. It shows how unique lexemes fill texts with connotative characteristics, accentuate social meanings with the help of a trapezic potential, build logic and form a factual series of an integral textual design, generate an author’s comment and make it a marker of individual writing, link the style concept of the publication with the language aesthetics of the place; form a composite picture, a subject-illustrative series, a figurative-symbolic fund of a value-oriented “super-publicistic” media product. The conclusion is made that dialectisms transform media texts of different genre groups and different problems into objects simultaneously aesthetic (stylistically attractive, interesting in form) and aesthetic (valuable for understanding the world and social devices, philosophically profound, fulfilling the function of “revelation”, promoting the author and the reader to a higher level morally, intellectually, mentally, spiritually).

2018
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The aim of the article is to verify the assumptions concerning the phaticality and efficacy of contemporary media communication. The realization of this goal resulted from the assumption that the most spectacular manifestation of the changes taking place in the press, radio and television is the occurrence of language play in the messages treated as examples of information genres. According to this assumption, the television news programme „Fakty” TVN from June 25, 2017, was analyzed. As a result of this analysis, nearly 40 examples of language play have been identified in this service, the starting point of which is to emphasize the language (system or usage) rules used to construct a statement (or reception of this statement as a manifestation of paying attention to these rules) to intensify the reception processes and attribution of the phatic function to the statement. As calculated, language games were included in 67 % of all the parts of the analyzed program and 73 % of the so-called presenter’s entry. Formal transparency was preserved only in the statements bearing the so-called bad news. By comparing the results of the study on the incidence of language play in the 2007 and 2013 information services with the quantitative analysis for the purposes of this article, one can argue that the tendency of using language play to construct speech in television news services is permanent. Non-incidental, but repetitive use of language play in the news in which it (as traditionally expected) should not occur is considered to be a manifestation of the respect for the „participation pact” by the institutional broadcaster, a way of establishing or maintaining the contact, as well as creating sender-recipient communication roles.

2018
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Television news programmes undergo modifications. This is related, on the one hand, to changes induced by the development of television as a medium, while on the other, to the alterations in the way programmes are conducted and new tools of contact with the viewers. Apart from the constitutive information function, the persuasive-recommending function gains importance. The author discusses the most important persuasive linguistic and non-linguistic means to engage the viewer and encourage him or her to view the information service. The presence of persuasive mechanisms is possible because modern news releases are multimodal in which the verbal text coexists with visual, musical and aesthetic elements. Coexistence of multiple codes and reception on several levels create new text design in the television news. The article discusses the most commonly used persuasion strategies, such as the impact of the presenter’s personality (his appearance, a mode of expression, the knowledge, the culture and the linguistic politeness), specific commands directed to viewers, e.g. stay with us, don’t leave receivers, we will meet after the break, interesting, current, new, diverse program proposals, intriguing beginnings, having a diversified linguistic form, broken syntactic structures, polite speech acts in the initial and final parts, familiarity and dialogue (conversations with guests, co-presenters and viewers), as well as varied intonation in information services. Discussed coaxing mechanisms it is interesting at first for entertaining programs and turning up at news bulletins of different stations, are leading to the observation that it does not already concern only inquiring, the presentation and the interpretation of the facto. The contemporary viewer observes, watches the news and it is necessary to stop his attention.