Thursday, November 21Институт «Высшая школа журналистики и массовых коммуникаций» СПбГУ

2018 Volume 5, No. 1

2018 Volume 5, No. 1

2018
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The article deals with the history of the Chair of Russian Stylistics in the Lomonosov Moscow State University, Department of Journalism. Being one of the first subdivisions of the faculty established in 1952, it became an integral part of philological training of future mass media workers — journalists and editors. The article describes the contribution of the Chair to the development of linguistic science in Russia and abroad. These achievements are based on the works of well-known scientists and pedagogues — Konstantin Bylinsky, Ditmar Rozental, Valentin Vompersky, Grigory Solganik, Ilja Tolstoy and others. Scientific and methodical activity of the Chair is represented in a diachronic aspect. The article uses discourse analysis of publications of recent decades, which allows to evaluate the importance of studying media language in the context of modern social practice and — more broadly — the cultural space of the country in general. Serious publishing work of the team which created manuals and reference books used by students of leading Russian universities for decades is also characterized in this article. The authors analyze the vectors of scientific development of the Chair, including problematics of its scientific activities.

2018
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The article is devoted to The Second World War (The Great Patriotic War) media interdiscourse, which is narrative, dialogical, polyphonical. The theoretical materials are the works of M. M. Bakhtin and M. N. Kozhina about polyphony and dialogicality of the text; B. A. Uspensky, poetics of composition; G. Genette on narrative strategies; A. Nünning about “context-oriented” narratology; John Pier of “discourse-oriented” narratology, as well as the works of modern researchers — L. R. Duskaeva, V. N. Suzdaltzeva, I. V. Annenkova, etc. This reseach is based on such terms as narrative format, text type. Some manipulative strategies of creating media discourse are also covered in this article — among them are interpretation of facts, their ideological and axiological framing, pair with low motives, a conceptual design of symbols and allegories, etc. There are also marked such common typological features of media texts as dialogicality, multimediality, creolization. They have such qualities as polycodeness, anthropocentricity, that is, the texts reflect the characteristics of the author’s worldview, interpretation of events. They are targeted not to an average citizen, but at least to a representative of particular stratum, a personality. Modern media texts about the war also have such categorical quality of media discourse as an evaluation.

2018
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Extralinguistic factors that influence the development of modern media caused the necessity to transform the speech that sounds in the air. In the conditions of multichannel practice, the same message is transmitted by the journalist on several media platforms that requires knowledge of the basic laws of sounding speech and expressive possibilities of prosody that are relevant in a specific situation on the air. Speech on the air is considered in conjunction with extralinguistic factors and specific screen situation that determine the specifics of the modern media. The proposed typology of the modern media, along with the analysis of the texts on the air, makes it possible to assess the expressive possibilities of prosody, depending on the type of speech and genre features of journalistic materials and to formulate practical recommendations for voicing the media texts. The example of monologic speech shows how the prosodic characteristics of a journalist’s speech change in the conditions of a specific media communication, what methods of sounding speech are most effective for transmitting information and for influencing the audience. The analysis of the best journalists’ and anchors’ speech allows us to formulate general recommendations on the design of a sounding speech in media. The results of the research show how to use the full range of prosodic opportunities for the most effective media communication.

2018
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This article is devoted to stylistic peculiarities of theatrical review which reflect specifity of modern art-consciousness. The aim of the article is to reveal briefly the phenomenon of art-consciousness of the time and to explain its specifity as a factor influencing the stylistics of theatrical review, to track the reflection of this phenomenon in the materials of Russian mass-media. The article covers the complex of questions connected with the functioning of the genre of review and main tendencies in the language of theatrical criticism. The subject of the article is of interest in connection with the relevance of the issue of the interaction of the language of mass-media and modern culture. The article analyzes speech tools which reflect and form perception of art specific. Linguistic means which are used for the expression of aesthetic appreciation and factors influencing the aesthetics reviews are also considered in the article and it also touches upon the actual subject of the postmodernism influence on the language of the content in modern art. Theatrical reviews published in the Russian media, mainly in journals, covering a wide range of topics (in print and online versions of modern Russian national newspapers) as well as in thematic publications devoted to leisure and culture, and in specialized editions about the theatre have been used for the analysis.

2018
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The article reviews statements with generic semantics or generalizing statements, identifies their structural and semantic features and their potential in mass media discourse. Disconnection from a specific referent and non-temporality should be deemed to be specific of structural and semantic constructions of phrases with generalizing meaning. These features determine how generalizing statements function and how they affect the recipient of information. Generalizing statements are studied in view of the category of authoritativeness — one of the major communicative categories. The article emphasizes that the authoritativeness of generalizing statements is backed up by background linguistic knowledge of linguistic society representatives. The native speaker gets used to perceiving phrases with generalizing meaning (proverbs, aphorisms, maxims) as a linguistic shell containing universal judgments applicable to a number of single-type situations and therefore true. The very linguistic form, which implicitly affects the message recipient’s consciousness and shapes the fideistic perception of information inherent in generalizing statements, becomes authoritative. It can be the basis for manipulation, because a construction patterned after a generalizing statement can sometimes have inaccurate and even deliberately false content inconsistent with reality. Therefore, by using generalizing statements the author can create a distorted world view.

2018
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The relationship between media and terrorism changed dramatically after September 11. The two entered a “symbiotic” relationship and now help each other reach mass audiences. Various media outlets publish dozens of reports about terrorism daily. Terrorism is a systemic phenomenon. Depending on what kinds of violence are considered systemic, the definition of terrorism fluctuates. English-language media seem to agree that September 11, the Boston Marathon bombing and bombing at the Ariana Grande concert in Manchester are all acts of terror. But what about a bombing in Mosul by the US troops, in which over a hundred Afghan civilians died? Why has a stabbing in Hamburg, perpetrated by a Muslim man, been called a terrorist attack while the Portland stabbing perpetrated by a white American has not. Are mass shootings in the US systemic? The definition of terrorism is contextual, and media with different political orientations have different definitions of this phenomenon. This study examines the language used by Fox News, CNN and Al Jazeera in their reports on terrorism. In regards to terrorism, the language of media is conservative and cautious. The word terror is mostly used to describe violent offenses in which white people fall victims of Muslim folks which furthers Islamophobia in the US and ignores other forms of systemic violence

2018
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It is shown that media influence on the language is noticeable in the language service subsystems. On the example of type phraseoscheme “Delo v tom, chto…” the transformation mechanism of relations within the sentence into relations within the text is considered. Within the dicteme the reduced main part of the compound sentence “Delo v tom, chto…” performs the construct function (connector of relations with subordinate), anaphoric (reference to preceding utterance) and cataphoric function (reference to subordinate part content). Beginning with the paragraph new dicteme the phrase “Delo v tom, chto…” becomes its formant and acquires new functions: a) forms dicteme as minimum text unit, just as preposition forms syntaxeme — the minimal syntax unit; b) provides interdicteme relations; c) fulfills anaphora function to preceding dicteme and cataphoric function to expanded content of the dicteme formed by it; d) marks text interpartability. The language status of these phrases is supported by: a) systemic nature of significant vocabulary involving into service analytical units; b) formation model (“Delo / sekret / problema / sut' / ideia / vopros / shtuka / beda v tom, chto…”); c) variability; d) synonymy with other language units; e) isomorphism with other language levels units. The pragmatic potential of indicated type phraseoscheme consists of addressant- and addressee-centricity: serves text author as rhetorical techniques of actualization and information amplifier, helps addressee to concentrate attention and contribute to the message understanding. It is noticed these phraseoschemes widespread in the internet message headlines, and in traditional media they are interviews characteristic language standard — mark the interviewee’s answer.

2018
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The article describes the history of the study of Russian commercial advertising at the Department of stylistics at the Faculty of Journalism at Moscow State University. It is noted that the stages of the study correspond to those periods that the field of Russian linguistics went through. Commercial advertising is taught in different disciplines: courses of Russian language and stylistics, as well as in special courses for students in base departments and for the “Advertising and marketing” retraining program. Advertising research at our Department is characterized by polydisciplinarity: it is described in terms of Russian studies and culture of speech, functional stylistics and linguistics and semiotics, linguistics and ethics, linguistics conflictology and forensic linguistics. Analysis of Russian language usage in the field of advertising demonstrates innovations that are deposited in the system of language, and leads to the thoughtof the formation of a new functional style of advertising in Russian literary language. And the analysis of various products proves the emergence of institutional advertising discourse as intentional and thematically unified macrosummation of texts. It is emphasized that in teaching of the creative aspects of advertising a competence-based approach is important that is oriented on formation of professional competences in copywriting and its private directions: naming and sloganistics. The units of analysis of advertising texts correspond to the units and aspects of the advertising text generation, including genre form. And assignments are given not only on the observation of different kinds of patterns of polycode creativity, but also on the creation of texts typical for the advertising industry and their components.

2018
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The present article considers the characteristics of Russian-language mass media in Finland in comparison with the situation 10–25 years ago. The most significant change that has taken place concerns the attitude to emigration and to immigrants: the previous exoticism and sense of adventure has gone, and the topic has now become commonplace. We aim to pinpoint the differences between the first and the second generation of immigrants and their attitudes to various sources of information. The article includes a survey of recent research in the sphere of media use. Particular attention is paid to various current trends in news reporting (relations between Russia and Finland, the activities of the Russian-speaking minority, political news, peculiarities of the Finnish way of life, historical parallels). An example is given of a local Russian-language media outlet. It is further demonstrated that changes in the Russian-language media concern not only the format, but also the status and content of the reporting. Materials of interest to the local reader are exemplified. We put forward hypotheses concerning the cyclical nature of people’s media interest, as well as the new functions of the mass media abroad. The article also includes brief remarks on the linguistic peculiarities of the new publications.

2018
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The article analyzes the peculiarities of the language of the Russian diaspora in Lithuania, which distinguish it from the language of the metropolis, on the basis of the material of media texts. The main trends in the evolution of new means of expression over the past decades and the regulatory impact of the mass media are revealed. The role of online publications in the output of lexical neologisms outside of Lithuania is also considered. The differences in the Russian language of Lithuania are most noticeable at the lexical and semantic level, but the impact of the state language of the titular nation also generates graphic, spelling and grammatical features. The article touches upon the problems of codification of the local norm. Observation of the national variants of the Russian language, emerging in territories outside Russia, will help to get an idea of the general picture of the existence of the Russian language in the world, to see similar and different in the specific of its foreign variants.